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The genomic DNAs of the eukaryotic Chlorella-like green alga, strain NC64A, and eleven of its viruses all contain significant levels of 5-methyldeoxycytidine. In addition, the host DNA as well as six of the viral DNAs also contain N6-methyldeoxyadenosine. At least some of the methylated bases in the host reside in different base sequences than the(More)
Transcription of the phage Mu com/mom operon is trans-activated by another phage gene product, C, a site-specific DNA binding protein. To gain insight into the mechanism by which C activates transcription, we carried out footprinting analyses of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (= RNAP) binding to various com-lacZ fusion plasmids. KMnO4-sensitive sites(More)
A nomenclature is described for restriction endonucleases, DNA methyltransferases, homing endonucleases and related genes and gene products. It provides explicit categories for the many different Type II enzymes now identified and provides a system for naming the putative genes found by sequence analysis of microbial genomes.
DNA methyltransferases methylate target bases within specific nucleotide sequences. Three structures are described for bacteriophage T4 DNA-adenine methyltransferase (T4Dam) in ternary complexes with partially and fully specific DNA and a methyl-donor analog. We also report the effects of substitutions in the related Escherichia coli DNA methyltransferase(More)
The fluorescence of 2-aminopurine ((2)A)-substituted duplexes (contained in the GATC target site) was investigated by titration with T4 Dam DNA-(N6-adenine)-methyltransferase. With an unmethylated target ((2)A/A duplex) or its methylated derivative ((2)A/(m)A duplex), T4 Dam produced up to a 50-fold increase in fluorescence, consistent with (2)A being(More)
Transcription of the bacteriophage Mu mom operon requires transactivation by the phage-encoded C protein. DNase I footprinting showed that in the absence of C, Escherichia coli RNA polymerase E(sigma)70 (RNAP) binds to the mom promoter (Pmom) region at a site, P2 (from -64 to -11 with respect to the transcription start site), on the top (non-transcribed)(More)
Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of DNA-[N6-adenine]-methyltransferases has revealed several conserved regions. All of these enzymes contain a DPPY [or closely related] motif. By site-directed mutagenesis of a cloned T4 dam gene, we have altered the first proline residue in this motif [located in conserved region IV of the T4 Dam-MTase] to(More)
The DNA-[N 6-adenine]-methyltransferase (Dam MTase) of phage T4 catalyzes methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to the N6-position of adenine in the palindromic sequence, GATC. We have used a gel shift assay to monitor complex formation between T4 Dam and various synthetic duplex oligonucleotides, either native or modified/defective.(More)
The phage T4Dam and EcoDam DNA-[adenine-N6] methyltransferases (MTases) methylate GATC palindromic sequences, while the BamHI DNA-[cytosine-N4] MTase methylates the GGATCC palindrome (which contains GATC) at the internal cytosine residue. We compared the ability of these enzymes to interact productively with defective duplexes in which individual elements(More)
Bacteriophage T4 codes for a DNA-[N6-adenine] methyltransferase (Dam) which recognizes primarily the sequence GATC in both cytosine- and hydroxymethylcytosine-containing DNA. Hypermethylating mutants, damh, exhibit a relaxation in sequence specificity, that is, they are readily able to methylate non-canonical sites. We have determined that the damh mutation(More)