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CONTEXT A prior national survey documented the high prevalence and costs of alternative medicine use in the United States in 1990. OBJECTIVE To document trends in alternative medicine use in the United States between 1990 and 1997. DESIGN Nationally representative random household telephone surveys using comparable key questions were conducted in 1991(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and nature of cognitive changes associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a large scale study. METHODS Consecutive patients with sporadic ALS (n = 279) underwent comprehensive neurologic evaluation and neuropsychological testing. Testing data from normal controls (n = 129) were used for(More)
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are severely depleted early in Alzheimer's disease and appear particularly susceptible to amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) toxicity in vivo. To model this effect in vitro, a cholinergic septal cell line (SN56) was exposed to A beta. SN56 cells exhibited a tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive outward K+ current with delayed(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease with no effective treatment. We report the results of a moderate-scale sequencing study aimed at increasing the number of genes known to contribute to predisposition for ALS. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 2869 ALS patients and 6405 controls. Several known ALS genes were found(More)
NR4A2, encoding a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is essential for the differentiation of the nigral dopaminergic neurons. To determine whether NR4A2 is a susceptibility gene for Parkinson disease, we carried out genetic analyses in 201 individuals affected with Parkinson disease and 221 age-matched unaffected controls. We identified two mutations(More)
Hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathies consist of a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that includes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS), and congenital hypomyelination (CH). The clinical classification of these neuropathies into discrete(More)
The most common inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease affecting adult motoneurons, is caused by dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Recent studies suggest that glia may contribute to motoneuron injury in animal models of familial ALS. To determine whether(More)
Dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that initiate and amplify immune responses. To determine whether dendritic cells participate in inflammatory reactions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we examined mRNA expression of dendritic cell surface markers in individual sporadic ALS (sALS), familial ALS (fALS), and nonneurological disease(More)
Over 1200 patients with motor neuron disease have been carefully diagnosed, followed, and included in a detailed database delineating characteristics of the disease. Of these patients, 831 were identified as exhibiting typical, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The progression of the disease in these patients has been followed with our scoring(More)
We recently demonstrated increased dendritic cells (potent antigen-presenting cells) and MCP-1 (monocyte, T-cell, and dendritic cell attracting chemokine) levels in ALS spinal cord tissue. Additionally, we presented data suggesting that dendritic cells might be contributing to the pathogenesis. To determine whether MCP-1 and dendritic cells are present in(More)