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The observation of intimal hyperplasia at bypass graft anastomoses has suggested a potential interaction between local hemodynamics and vascular wall response. Wall shear has been particularly implicated because of its known effects upon the endothelium of normal vessels and, thus, was examined as to its possible role in the development of intimal(More)
Diastolic time (DT) is calculated as the cycle length (RR) minus electromechanical systole (QS2). The ratio of DT (RR-QS2) to RR interval times 100, or the percent diastole (%D), varies nonlinearly with heart rate (HR), increasing rapidly with decreasing HR. The effect of commonly used cardioactive agents on %D was studied in five groups of normal subjects.(More)
A steady flow, in vitro model of distal arterial bypass graft junctions was used to examine the effects of junction angle and flow rate on the local velocity field. Three test sections were fabricated from Plexiglas tubing having anastomotic junction angles of either 30, 45, or 60 deg. Flow visualization revealed velocity profiles skewed toward the outer(More)
Flow in distal end-to-side anastomoses of iliofemoral artery bypass grafts was simulated using a steady flow, three-dimensional numerical model. With the proximal artery occluded, anastomotic angles were varied over 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 60 and 70 deg while the inlet Reynolds numbers were 100 and 205. Fully developed flow in the graft became somewhat skewed(More)
Asymmetric 75% and 95% area reduction, transparent Sylgard stenotic models were operated under internal carotid artery (ICA) [Womersley parameter, alpha=5.36, Re(mean) =213 and 180, respectively, and Re(peak)=734 and 410, respectively] and left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow wave forms (alpha=2.65, Re(mean)=59 and 57, respectively, and(More)
The relationship between the duration of electrical systole (QT) and heart rate (HR) and the relationship between the QT interval and total electromechanical systole (QS2) were studied in the resting state in 200 patients (100 males and 100 females) without evidence of cardiovascular disease. A linear relationship was found between the QT and HR in males(More)
Hemodynamics within the distal anastomoses of iliofemoral bypass grafts were simulated using Plexiglas models (2.5 cm ID) within a pulsatile flow loop system (Re(mean) = 92, Re(peak) = 459 and alpha = 3.56). End-to-side distal anastomoses were constructed with angles of 30 degrees, 45 degrees and 60 degrees to bypass proximal artery segments with stenoses(More)
Pioneers in the field of small diameter graft development sought to promote graft endothelialization and, thereby, increase patency by transplanting a varying degree of autologous endothelial cells onto vascular grafts prior to implantation. This process has become known as endothelial cell seeding. The underlying hypothesis is quite simple; that is, by(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to simultaneously monitor the transcriptional levels of 12 endothelial growth factor genes in response to alterations in wall shear stress (WSS) under conditions relevant to the development of intimal hyperplasia, a major cause of arterial bypass graft failure. METHODS Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were(More)