Stanley Anthony Benkovic

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Genetic causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), and presenilin 2 (PS2) genes. The mutant APP(K670N,M671L) transgenic line, Tg2576, shows markedly elevated amyloid beta-protein (A beta) levels at an early age and, by 9-12 months, develops extracellular AD-type A beta deposits in the(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms underlying idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) remain enigmatic. Recent findings suggest that inflammatory processes are associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. Enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, has been found in association with glial cells in the(More)
Reactive gliosis is a hallmark of disease-, trauma-, and chemical-induced damage to the central nervous system. The signaling pathways associated with this response to neural injury remain to be elucidated, but recent evidence implicates the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. Here, we used the known(More)
Obesity is a major risk factor associated with a variety of human disorders. While its involvement in disorders such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer have been well characterized, it remains to be determined if obesity has a detrimental effect on the nervous system. To address this issue we determined whether obesity serves as a risk factor(More)
Enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -alpha, is associated with the neuropathological effects underlying disease-, trauma- and chemically induced neurodegeneration. Previously, we have shown that deficiency of TNF receptors protects against MPTP-induced striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity, findings suggestive of a role for TNF-alpha in(More)
Neuroinflammation is associated with glial activation following a variety of brain injuries, including stroke. While activation of perilesional astrocytes and microglia following ischemic brain injury is well documented, the influence of age on these cellular responses after stroke is unclear. This study investigated the influence of advanced age on(More)
In the present study, we have examined the expression of both presenilins in the rat hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA-O), an animal model of ischemia. The cortex showed the greatest increase in PS mRNA levels (7-10-fold) at 4 and 8 days posttreatment. Presenilin-1 (PS-1) levels in the contralateral(More)
NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an oxidant-activated CNC bZip transcription factor, has been implicated in defense against oxidative stress and chemical insults in a range of cell and tissue types, including the central nervous system. Here, we report that deletion of the Nrf2 gene in mice caused vacuolar (spongiform) leukoencephalopathy with widespread(More)
Enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines has long been linked to neuronal and glial responses to brain injury. Indeed, inflammation in the brain has been associated with damage that stems from conditions as diverse as infection, multiple sclerosis, trauma, and excitotoxicity. In many of these brain injuries, disruption of the(More)
Serious questions have been raised by occupational health investigators regarding a possible causal association between neurological effects in welders and the presence of manganese (Mn) in welding fume. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 40 mg/m(3) of gas metal arc-mild steel (MS) welding fume for 3 h/day for 10 days. Generated fume was(More)