Stanley A . Sawyer

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The patterns of nonrandom usage of synonymous codons (codon bias) in enteric bacteria were analyzed. Poisson random field (PRF) theory was used to derive the expected distribution of frequencies of nucleotides differing from the ancestral state at aligned sites in a set of DNA sequences. This distribution was applied to synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
We present a worldwide analysis of humid tropical forest dynamics and tree species richness. New tree mortality, recruitment, and species richness data include the most dynamic and diverse mature tropical forests known. Twenty-five sites show a strong tendency for the most species-rich forests to be dynamic and aseasonal. Mean annual tree mortality and(More)
Population geneticists have long sought to estimate the distribution of selection intensities among genes of diverse function across the genome. Only recently have DNA sequencing and analytical techniques converged to make this possible. Important advances have come from comparing genetic variation within species (polymorphism) with fixed differences(More)
One of the principal goals of population genetics is to understand the processes by which genetic variation within species (polymorphism) becomes converted into genetic differences between species (divergence). In this transformation, selective neutrality, near neutrality, and positive selection may each play a role, differing from one gene to the next.(More)
We have estimated the selective effects of amino acid replacements in natural populations by comparing levels of polymorphism in 91 genes in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster with their divergence from Drosophila simulans. The genes include about equal numbers whose level of expression in adults is greater in males, greater in females, or(More)
Sexual dimorphism is widespread and substantial throughout the animal world. It is surprising, then, that such a pervasive source of biological diversity has not been integrated into studies of adaptive radiation, despite extensive and growing attention to both phenomena. Rather, most studies of adaptive radiation either group individuals without regard to(More)
In this article we explore statistical properties of the maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the selection and mutation parameters in a Poisson random field population genetics model of directional selection at DNA sites. We derive the asymptotic variances and covariance of the MLEs and explore the power of the likelihood ratio tests (LRT) of neutrality(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in stable genome regions provide durable measurements of species evolution. We systematically identified each SNP in concatenations of all backbone ORFs in 7 newly or previously sequenced evolutionarily instructive pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, O157:H(-), and O55:H7. The 1,113 synonymous SNPs demonstrate(More)
Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in Drosophila protein-coding genes suggest that a considerable fraction of amino acid differences between species can be attributed to positive selection and that genes with sex-biased expression, that is, those expressed predominantly in one sex, have especially high rates of adaptive evolution. Previous studies,(More)