Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev

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Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-alphabeta receptor and STAT-1, and was associated(More)
Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults, and GII.4 has been the predominant genotype since its first documented occurrence in 1987. This study examined the evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 noroviruses over more than three decades to investigate possible mechanisms by which these viruses have emerged to become(More)
Murine norovirus (MNV) is presently the only member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae that can be propagated in cell culture. The goal of this study was to elucidate the proteolytic processing strategy of MNV during an authentic replication cycle in cells. A proteolytic cleavage map of the ORF1 polyprotein was generated, and the virus-encoded(More)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) nonstructural proteins are translated as part of a large polyprotein that undergoes autocatalytic processing by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase. In this study, we mapped three new cleavage sites (E(46)/A(47), E(331)/D(332), and E(685)/N(686)) recognized by the virus proteinase in the N-terminal part of the open reading frame 1(More)
The MD145-12 strain (GII/4) is a member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae and was detected in a patient with acute gastroenteritis in a Maryland nursing home. The open reading frame 1 (ORF1) (encoding the nonstructural polyprotein) was cloned as a consensus sequence into various expression vectors, and a proteolytic cleavage map was determined.(More)
A porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), strain Cowden in the family Caliciviridae (genus Sapovirus), can be propagated in a continuous cell line, LLC-PK cells, but only in the presence of an intestinal content fluid filtrate from gnotobiotic pigs. This cell culture system is presently the only in vitro model among caliciviruses that cause gastrointestinal(More)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a positive-strand, nonenveloped RNA virus in the family Caliciviridae. A cDNA library of the Urbana (URB) strain of FCV was generated and the sequence of the genome was determined from overlapping clones except for 13 bases from the 5'-end. The 5'-end sequence was identified by analysis of clones derived by RT-PCR across the(More)
Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the Caliciviridae, produces its major structural protein as a precursor polyprotein from a subgenomic-sized mRNA. In this study, we show that the proteinase responsible for processing this precursor into the mature capsid protein is encoded by the viral genome at the 3'-terminal portion of open reading frame 1 (ORF1).(More)
Norwalk virus (NV) is a prototype strain of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae. The human noroviruses have emerged as major agents of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups, but there are no vaccines or antiviral agents partly due to the absence of a cell culture system. We report the generation of cells expressing self-replicating NV RNA (NV(More)
The objective of this study was to identify the active form of the feline calicivirus (FCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Multiple active forms of the FCV RdRP were identified. The most active enzyme was the full-length proteinase-polymerase (Pro-Pol) precursor protein, corresponding to amino acids 1072 to 1763 of the FCV polyprotein encoded by open(More)