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Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-alphabeta receptor and STAT-1, and was associated(More)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) nonstructural proteins are translated as part of a large polyprotein that undergoes autocatalytic processing by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase. In this study, we mapped three new cleavage sites (E(46)/A(47), E(331)/D(332), and E(685)/N(686)) recognized by the virus proteinase in the N-terminal part of the open reading frame 1(More)
Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in children and adults, and GII.4 has been the predominant genotype since its first documented occurrence in 1987. This study examined the evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 noroviruses over more than three decades to investigate possible mechanisms by which these viruses have emerged to become(More)
The MD145-12 strain (GII/4) is a member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae and was detected in a patient with acute gastroenteritis in a Maryland nursing home. The open reading frame 1 (ORF1) (encoding the nonstructural polyprotein) was cloned as a consensus sequence into various expression vectors, and a proteolytic cleavage map was determined.(More)
The third open reading frame (ORF3) located at the 3' end of the genomic RNA of feline calicivirus (FCV) encodes a small (12.2-kDa) minor structural protein of 106 amino acids designated VP2. Point mutations and deletions were introduced into an infectious FCV cDNA clone in order to evaluate the functional importance of ORF3 and its encoded protein, VP2.(More)
Murine norovirus (MNV) is presently the only member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae that can be propagated in cell culture. The goal of this study was to elucidate the proteolytic processing strategy of MNV during an authentic replication cycle in cells. A proteolytic cleavage map of the ORF1 polyprotein was generated, and the virus-encoded(More)
BACKGROUND Positive strand RNA viruses rely heavily on host cell RNA binding proteins for various aspects of their life cycle. Such proteins interact with sequences usually present at the 5' or 3' extremities of the viral RNA genome, to regulate viral translation and/or replication. We have previously reported that the well characterized host RNA binding(More)
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a positive-strand, nonenveloped RNA virus in the family Caliciviridae. A cDNA library of the Urbana (URB) strain of FCV was generated and the sequence of the genome was determined from overlapping clones except for 13 bases from the 5'-end. The 5'-end sequence was identified by analysis of clones derived by RT-PCR across the(More)
A porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), strain Cowden in the family Caliciviridae (genus Sapovirus), can be propagated in a continuous cell line, LLC-PK cells, but only in the presence of an intestinal content fluid filtrate from gnotobiotic pigs. This cell culture system is presently the only in vitro model among caliciviruses that cause gastrointestinal(More)
Human noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite the prevalence of these viruses within the community, the study of human norovirus has largely been hindered due to the inability to cultivate the viruses ex vivo and the lack of a small-animal model. In 2003, the discovery of a novel murine(More)