Stanislas Leibler

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A fraction of a genetically homogeneous microbial population may survive exposure to stress such as antibiotic treatment. Unlike resistant mutants, cells regrown from such persistent bacteria remain sensitive to the antibiotic. We investigated the persistence of single cells of Escherichia coli with the use of microfluidic devices. Persistence was linked to(More)
Cells use complex networks of interacting molecular components to transfer and process information. These "computational devices of living cells" are responsible for many important cellular processes, including cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. Here we address the issue of the sensitivity of the networks to variations in their biochemical(More)
Cellular functions, such as signal transmission, are carried out by 'modules' made up of many species of interacting molecules. Understanding how modules work has depended on combining phenomenological analysis with molecular studies. General principles that govern the structure and behaviour of modules may be discovered with help from synthetic sciences(More)
Organisms in fluctuating environments must constantly adapt their behavior to survive. In clonal populations, this may be achieved through sensing followed by response or through the generation of diversity by stochastic phenotype switching. Here we show that stochastic switching can be favored over sensing when the environment changes infrequently. The(More)
A wide range of organisms use circadian clocks to keep internal sense of daily time and regulate their behavior accordingly. Most of these clocks use intracellular genetic networks based on positive and negative regulatory elements. The integration of these "circuits" at the cellular level imposes strong constraints on their functioning and design. Here, we(More)
During embryonic development, orderly patterns of gene expression eventually assign each cell in the embryo its particular fate. For the anteroposterior axis of the Drosophila embryo, the first step in this process depends on a spatial gradient of the maternal morphogen Bicoid (Bcd). Positional information of this gradient is transmitted to downstream gap(More)
Networks of interacting proteins orchestrate the responses of living cells to a variety of external stimuli, but how sensitive is the functioning of these protein networks to variations in their biochemical parameters? One possibility is that to achieve appropriate function, the reaction rate constants and enzyme concentrations need to be adjusted in a(More)
Understanding biology at the single-cell level requires simultaneous measurements of biochemical parameters and behavioral characteristics in individual cells. Here, the output of individual flagellar motors in Escherichia coli was measured as a function of the intracellular concentration of the chemotactic signaling protein. The concentration of this(More)
Proteins display a hierarchy of structural features at primary, secondary, tertiary, and higher-order levels, an organization that guides our current understanding of their biological properties and evolutionary origins. Here, we reveal a structural organization distinct from this traditional hierarchy by statistical analysis of correlated evolution between(More)
In eukaryotic cells, the onset of mitosis involves cyclin molecules which interact with proteins of the cdc2 family to produce active kinases. In vertebrate cells, cyclin A dependent kinases become active in S- and pro-phases, whereas a cyclin B-dependent kinase is mostly active in metaphase. It has recently been shown that, when added to Xenopus egg(More)