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According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, cerebral deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is critical for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Aβ generation is initiated when β-secretase (BACE1) cleaves the amyloid precursor protein. For more than a decade, BACE1 has been a prime target for designing drugs to prevent or treat AD. However, development of(More)
ABT-384 is a potent, selective inhibitor of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD-1). One milligram of ABT-384 daily fully inhibited hepatic HSD-1. Establishing the dose that fully inhibits central nervous system (CNS) HSD-1 would enable definitive clinical studies in potential CNS indications. [9,11,12,12-(2)H4] cortisol (D4 cortisol), a stable(More)
This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of cycloserine and measured its effects on explicit and implicit memory tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four hundred ten patients with AD, aged 50 years or older, were enrolled in this parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 5, 15, or 50 mg cycloserine or(More)
Hypofunction of NMDA receptors has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. NMDA receptor neurotransmission can be enhanced through inhibition of glycine reuptake by the glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1). The primary objective of these studies was to explore the relationship between plasma exposure and glycine cerebrospinal(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of five fixed doses of ganstigmine (CHF 2819) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated five dose levels (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 mg) administered(More)
INTRODUCTION This study evaluates the activity of SDZ ENA 713, a centrally-selective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and its relationship to central and peripheral pharmacokinetic parameters. METHODS Eighteen AD patients were enrolled in this open-label, multiple-dose(More)
BACE1 is a key protease controlling the formation of amyloid β, a peptide hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the development of potent and selective inhibitors of BACE1 has been a focus of many drug discovery efforts in academia and industry. Herein, we report the nonclinical and early(More)
BACKGROUND β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Emerging evidence indicates that Aβ levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may serve as an early clinical biomarker for evaluating pharmacological activity of new drug candidates targeting Aβ production or Aβ clearance. Therefore, it is critical to understand whether(More)
β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides are thought to be critically involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aspartyl protease β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is required for the production of Aβ, and BACE1 inhibition is thus an attractive target for the treatment of AD. We show that verubecestat (MK-8931) is a potent,(More)