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Regulated by pH, membrane-anchored proteins E and M function during dengue virus maturation and membrane fusion. Our atomic model of the whole virion from cryo–electron microscopy at 3.5-Å resolution reveals that in the mature virus at neutral extracellular pH, the N-terminal 20-amino-acid segment of M (involving three pH-sensing histidines) latches and(More)
Construction of a complex virus may involve a hierarchy of assembly elements. Here, we report the structure of the whole human adenovirus virion at 3.6 angstroms resolution by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), revealing in situ atomic models of three minor capsid proteins (IIIa, VIII, and IX), extensions of the (penton base and hexon) major capsid(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a bullet-shaped rhabdovirus and a model system of negative-strand RNA viruses. Through direct visualization by means of cryo-electron microscopy, we show that each virion contains two nested, left-handed helices: an outer helix of matrix protein M and an inner helix of nucleoprotein N and RNA. M has a hub domain with four(More)
We examine the assumptions that the fovea contains equal numbers of inner (invaginating or ON) and outer (flat or OFF) midget bipolar cells and equal numbers of inner and outer diffuse bipolar cells. Based on reconstruction from electron photomicrographs of serial thin sections through the fovea of a macaque monkey, we reject both assumptions. First, every(More)
The three known classes of convex polyhedron with equal edge lengths and polyhedral symmetry--tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral--are the 5 Platonic polyhedra, the 13 Archimedean polyhedra--including the truncated icosahedron or soccer ball--and the 2 rhombic polyhedra reported by Johannes Kepler in 1611. (Some carbon fullerenes, inorganic cages,(More)
  • Xing Zhang, Mark Boyce, +4 authors Z Hong Zhou
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 2010
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by blood-feeding insects (Culicoides sp.) and causes hemorrhagic diseases in livestock. BTV is a nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus with two capsids: a well-studied, stable core enclosing the dsRNA genome and a highly unstable, poorly studied coat responsible for host cell attachment and entry. Here, based(More)
Psychophysical results suggest that the primate visual system is equally sensitive to both the onset and offset of short-wavelength light and that these responses are carried by separate pathways. However, physiological studies of cells in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus find far fewer OFF-center than ON-center cells whose receptive-field centers(More)
PURPOSE To conduct systematic epidemiologic, neuro-ophthalmologic, psychophysical, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic examinations on a newly identified pedigree with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). DESIGN Observational population cohort study. METHODS A prospective investigation of an entire Brazilian LHON family. SETTING A field(More)
A rule of retinal wiring is that many receptors converge onto fewer bipolar cells and still fewer ganglion cells. However, for each S cone in macaque fovea, there are two S-cone ON bipolar cells and two blue-yellow (BY) ganglion cells. To understand this apparent rule reversal, we reconstructed synaptic patterns of divergence and convergence and determined(More)
The rod photoreceptor's synaptic terminal (or spherule) uses an elaborate synaptic structure to signal absorption of one or more photons to its postsynaptic targets. This structure includes one or two synaptic ribbons inside the terminal and a pouch-like "invagination" outside the terminal, into which enter a widely variable number of incoming fibers and(More)