Stan Indik

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The major envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF5) of seven Czech isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were amplified and their nucleotide sequences were determined. ORF5 displayed nucleotide and amino acid identities of 87.5-100% and 87. 6-100%, respectively, among the isolates. In a phylogenetic tree, all European isolates(More)
BACKGROUND A human betaretrovirus (HBRV) has been linked with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) following the detection of viral particles in biliary epithelium by electron microscopy and cloning of the betaretrovirus genome from biliary epithelium and peri-hepatic lymph nodes. Evidence for viral infection was found in the majority of PBC patients'(More)
Our laboratory has characterized and cloned a human betaretrovirus resembling the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) from biliary epithelium and lymph nodes of patients with the autoimmune biliary disease, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Evidence for betaretrovirus infection has been detected mainly in patients' lymphoid tissue by RT-PCR and(More)
295 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pig pathogen classified, along with equine ar-teritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), in the genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales, the latter including also the family(More)
We thank Tabibian and Lindor for their comments on our article. 1, 2 There are multiple challenges for establishing a pathogenic role for human betaretrovirus (HBRV) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Immune-based diag-nostics are clearly required for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, for example. Also, methods to measure low-level viral(More)
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