Stan Bernstein

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Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years,(More)
OBJECTIVES HIV-positive women have particular needs for contraception to avoid unwanted pregnancy, to protect their own health and to eliminate the risk of transmitting HIV to an infant. In 2004, the United Nations described a four-element strategy to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV; the second element is preventing unintended pregnancies(More)
Self-schemas are knowledge structures developed to understand, integrate, or explain one's behavior in a particular domain. Two, studies examined the information-processing consequences of self-schemas about gender. Systematic differences in cognitive performance were observed among groups of individuals identified as masculine schematics, feminine(More)
was responsible for production of the report and Rose MacLean provided editorial support. The authors are grateful to the following colleagues who reviewed an earlier draft of the report and made many helpful suggestions: who deserves special thanks for reviewing this report and for providing advice, data and information for the estimates presented in(More)
Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women’s empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years,(More)
Unmet need for contraception represents a major failure in the provision of reproductive health services and reflects the extent of access to services for spacing and limiting births, which are also affected by personal, partner, community and health system factors. In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, family planning has been given(More)
The addition of a new target (5.B) to have universal access to reproductive health by 2015 to Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 “Improve maternal health” has given renewed priority to addressing care related to the health outcomes of MDGs 4 and 5, and to redressing the large disparities in coverage of health services between and within countries. The(More)
With only six years remaining to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015, issues pertaining to universal access to reproductive health deserve more emphasis as part of current efforts in international health. The maternal health goal is the Millennium Development Goal with the most disappointing progress. Whereas much has been achieved globally for(More)