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Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian(More)
We reported previously that the neuropeptide oxytocin attenuates stress-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and anxiety behavior. This study sought to identify forebrain target sites through which oxytocin may mediate its anti-stress effects. Ovariectomized, estradiol-treated rats received intracerebroventricular infusions of oxytocin (1 or(More)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates the circulating levels of vital glucocorticoid hormones. The activity of the HPA axis is characterized not only by a classic circadian rhythm, but also by an ultradian pattern of discrete pulsatile release of glucocorticoids. A number of psychiatric and metabolic(More)
The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is characterized by an ultradian pulsatile pattern of glucocorticoid secretion. Despite increasing evidence for the importance of pulsatility in regulating glucocorticoid-responsive gene transcription, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pulsatility of glucocorticoid synthesis and(More)
The generality and spectrum of chromatin-remodeling requirements for nuclear receptor function are unknown. We have characterized glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding events and chromatin structural transitions across GR-induced or -repressed genes. This analysis reveals that GR binding invariably occurs at nuclease-accessible sites (DHS). A remarkable(More)
Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function is characterised by pulses of corticosterone secretion followed by a transient refractory period when the axis appears to be inhibited. In females pulses of corticosterone secretion occur approximately once per hour with variation in pulse amplitude underlying a diurnal rhythm. Males show smaller pulses of(More)
BACKGROUND There is a popular belief that chronic stress causes heart disease through psychoneuroendocrine mechanisms. We have examined whether an elevated circulating cortisol-to-testosterone ratio increases the risk of ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS We undertook a prospective cohort study of 2512 men aged 45 to 59 years between 1979 and(More)
Intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin reduces anxiety behavior and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress in female rats. Similar changes are seen in late-pregnant rats, and oxytocin-sensitive pathways may mediate these effects. This study investigated anxiety behavior and stress responses using a gonadal steroid model of late(More)
An increase in arousal in response to hypercapnia [elevated arterial PCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) levels] during awake or sleep states is an important component of mechanisms designed to maintain acid-base homeostasis. Since central histaminergic neurons are crucial for maintaining waking states and vigilance, a nonresponsive or dysfunctional(More)