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The pharmaceutical industry is under growing pressure from a range of environmental issues, including major losses of revenue owing to patent expirations, increasingly cost-constrained healthcare systems and more demanding regulatory requirements. In our view, the key to tackling the challenges such issues pose to both the future viability of the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study assessed the efficacy of olanzapine in delaying or preventing conversion to psychosis and reducing symptoms in people with prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia. METHOD This randomized trial occurred at four North American clinics in the Prevention Through Risk Identification, Management, and Education project. Outpatients received(More)
BACKGROUND The prodromal phase of schizophrenic disorders has been described prospectively. The present study aimed to determine the short-term efficacy and safety of olanzapine treatment of prodromal symptoms compared with placebo. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled trial with fixed-flexible dosing conducted(More)
Distinct calming rather than nonspecific sedation is desirable for the treatment of acute agitation. In 3 double-blind studies, acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia (N = 311), bipolar mania (N = 201), or dementia (N = 206) were treated with intramuscular (1-3 injections/24 hrs) olanzapine (2.5-10.0 mg), haloperidol (7.5 mg), lorazepam (2.0 mg), or(More)
RATIONALE First generation antipsychotics induce extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS), presumably through dopamine D(2) receptor blockade at the dorsal striatum. This may also produce impairment of cognitive processes, such as procedural learning, that are dependent on this region. Haloperidol and, to a lesser extent, risperidone, are active in the dorsal(More)
OBJECTIVE It is widely held that there is a delayed onset of antipsychotic action and that any early effects represent nonspecific behavioral effects. Recent research has shown that antipsychotic action begins within the first week. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychosis improves within the first 24 hours of antipsychotic treatment. METHOD In(More)
Clinical trials rarely, if ever, occur in a vacuum. Generally, large amounts of clinical data are available prior to the start of a study, particularly on the current study's control arm. There is obvious appeal in using (i.e., 'borrowing') this information. With historical data providing information on the control arm, more trial resources can be devoted(More)
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analyzed in healthy horses, using different lavage fluid volumes and lung sites. The only significant difference in the cellular composition of BAL fluid between the right and left lungs was the mast cell numbers, which were significantly higher in the left lung. Total cell count ranged from 34 to 330 cells/microliter(More)
Clinical trials allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a treatment. However, the statistical analysis used to draw these conclusions will inevitably be complicated by the common problem of attrition. Resorting to ad hoc methods such as case deletion or mean imputation can lead to biased results, especially if the amount of missing(More)
BACKGROUND Sequential lactate concentration ([LAC]) measurements have prognostic value in that hospitalized humans and neonatal foals that have a delayed return to normolactatemia have greater morbidity and case fatality rate. HYPOTHESIS Prognosis for survival is decreased in horses with a delayed return to normal [LAC]. ANIMALS Two hundred and fifty(More)