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Metformin, one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of type II diabetes, was recently found to exert its therapeutic effects, at least in part, by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the site of its action, as well as the mechanism to activate AMPK, remains elusive. Here we report how metformin activates AMPK. In(More)
BACKGROUND Hormone replacement therapy increases intimal hyperplasia (IH) following vascular intervention. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in IH development. We have shown estrogen up-regulates MT1-MMP expression, a transmembrane protein that activates MMP-2, and increases vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) collagen invasion via increased MMP-2(More)
PURPOSE To determine the pattern of strain and pressure transmitted to an aortic aneurysm wall before and after endovascular exclusion and to evaluate the role of sac thrombus on the conduction of pressure and wall strain. METHODS Three canine thoracic aortas were used to create abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The segments were placed on a pulsatile(More)
OBJECTIVE Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been reported to have more adverse outcomes after vascular reconstructions, including increased intimal hyperplasia development and bypass graft failure. HRT may be affecting the pathway contributing to intimal hyperplasia. An important component of this pathway involves matrix(More)
Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) is the causative agent of gastritis in man. Helicobacter pylori cells contain a large amount of an extremely active urease (E.C. This enzyme is suspected to be a virulence factor since the ammonium ion produced from urea may be responsible for tissue injury and/or survival of H. pylori in the(More)
The cardioprotective effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in healthy, postmenopausal women is well documented. Little work has been performed on the effect of HRT in peripheral arteries. Recent work suggests that HRT may adversely affect the patency of peripheral grafts. This study investigates the in vitro effects of estrogen and/or progesterone(More)
BACKGROUND A primary component in the development of intimal hyperplasia (IH) in response to vascular injury is basement membrane remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a major role in this process by degradation of basement membrane proteins, mainly collagen type IV. Vascular injury initiates an inflammatory cascade with the release of tumor(More)
BACKGROUND Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have more adverse outcomes after vascular reconstructions. Estrogen-binding receptors have been identified on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), indicating that vascular function may be under direct hormonal control. A key group of enzymes involved in vascular remodeling are matrix(More)
Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is a fundamental process in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a precursor to development of cardiovascular disease and a potential response to injury of an arterial wall. Boyden chamber experiments are used to quantify the motion of cell populations in response to a chemoattractant gradient (i.e., cell(More)
BACKGROUND Testosterone deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of vascular disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in vascular remodeling. Our group has demonstrated an association between female hormones and MMP-modulated intimal hyperplasia. In the present study, we investigated testosterone in the modulation of MMPs(More)