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A comparative study was made in three laboratories of a test for hygienic hand disinfection. Staphylococcus aureus was applied to the fingertips of a total of 74 volunteers (49 female and 25 male) and the effect of washing with three chlorhexidine preparations and one non-medicated soap was assessed after one and five applications. Fingertip inoculation is(More)
It is now common practice to give large doses of antibiotics, usually in combination, to patients undergoing open-heart surgery. As a result the risks of bacterial infection have been much reduced. There remains, however, a hazard of fungal infection at the operation site in the heart or great vessels, with disseminated lesions following arterial embolism.(More)
Chlorhexidine in spirit is used to reduce the skin bacterial load before surgery; and recently prewashing with chlorhexidine scrub has been advocated. We describe three studies on cardio-thoracic surgical patients--particularly those having coronary artery grafts with long leg and sternal wounds. Two studies compared prewashes with chlorhexidine scrub(More)
A prospective randomised trial was performed to compare the robustness of a new non-latex surgical glove with a standard latex glove when worn by four general surgeons in a district general hospital. Gloves were retrieved after surgery and examined using the European Standard Test for punctures. The overall puncture rate was 10.1%, and there was no(More)
John Snow was one of the founders of epidemiology. Already convinced of the value of pure water, he analysed the distribution of cholera cases in the 1848 epidemic in relation to the purity of the water supply in London. His hypothesis that cholera was spread by contaminated water was tested by the 'Broad Street' epidemic of 1854. Snow quickly traced the(More)
Hot air hand driers are increasingly used in both public areas and hospitals, but there is little literature on their bacteriology. Four units were examined by comparing the bacterial aerosols released from hands during use by sets of twelve subjects with those released by paper towels. Tests on two units also included hand imprints on agar plates for(More)
Three aspects of surgical hand hygiene have been studied: the attitude of the surgeon, the microbiology of glove changing during an operation, and the use of antiseptic-coated gloves together with different handwash routines. The survey revealed that the predominant factor in choice of agent for surgical hand hygiene was skin tolerance. The microbiological(More)
Joseph Lister is one of the pioneers of Infection Control. Not only did he reduce the incidence of wound infection (usually fatal pre-Lister) by the introduction of antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid, but also he was the first to apply Pasteur's principles to humans. He showed that urine could be kept sterile after boiling in swan-necked flasks. He was(More)