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We have utilized a validated (standardized) estrogen receptor (ER) competitive-binding assay to determine the ER affinity for a large, structurally diverse group of chemicals. Uteri from ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were the ER source for the competitive-binding assay. Initially, test chemicals were screened at high concentrations to determine whether(More)
Understanding structural requirements for a chemical to exhibit estrogen receptor (ER) binding has been important in various fields. This knowledge has been directly and indirectly applied to design drugs for human estrogen replacement therapy, and to identify estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This paper reports structure-activity relationships (SARs) based(More)
BACKGROUND The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project evaluated the inter- and intra-platform reproducibility of seven microarray platforms and three quantitative gene expression assays in profiling the expression of two commercially available Reference RNA samples (Nat Biotechnol 24:1115-22, 2006). The tested microarrays were the platforms from(More)
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) have a variety of adverse effects in humans and animals. About 58,000 chemicals, most having little safety data, must be tested in a group of tiered assays. As assays will take years, it is important to develop rapid methods to help in priority setting. For application to large data sets, we have developed an integrated system(More)
BACKGROUND Fibrates are a unique hypolipidemic drugs that lower plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels through their action as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists. The activation of PPARalpha leads to a cascade of events that result in the pharmacological (hypolipidemic) and adverse (carcinogenic) effects in rodent(More)
BACKGROUND Comfrey is consumed by humans as a vegetable and a tea, and has been used as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. Comfrey, however, is hepatotoxic in livestock and humans and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Our previous study suggested that comfrey induces liver tumors by a genotoxic mechanism and that the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in(More)
BACKGROUND Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been previously observed in human cancer tissues and shown promise in defining tumor status. However, there is little information as to if or when expression changes of miRNAs occur in normal tissues after carcinogen exposure. RESULTS To explore the possible time-course changes of miRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is a perennial plant and has been consumed by humans as a vegetable, a tea and an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. It, however, is hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in experimental animals and hepatotoxic in humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) exist in many plants and many of them cause liver toxicity and/or(More)
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