Stacey Efstathiou

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Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF(More)
The complete DNA sequence was determined for strain U1102 of human herpesvirus-6, a CD4+ T-lymphotropic virus with disease associations in immunodeficient settings and a possible complicating factor in AIDS. The genome is 159,321 bp in size, has a base composition of 43% G + C, and contains 119 open reading frames. The overall structure is 143 kb bounded by(More)
The murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) K3 protein, like that of the Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus, down-regulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression. However, how this contributes to viral replication in vivo is unclear. After intranasal MHV-68 infection, K3 was transcribed both during acute lytic infection in the lung and(More)
The primary infection of BALB/c mice with murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) was investigated. When the virus was introduced intranasally, the lung was the main tissue infected, the virus being associated with alveolar epithelium and mononuclear cells. A productive infection lasted for 10 days, after which viral DNA could be detected by in situ hybridization up(More)
Short nucleotide sequence analysis of seven restriction fragments of murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) DNA has been undertaken and used to determine the overall genome organization and relatedness of this virus to other well characterized representatives of the alpha-, beta- and gammaherpesvirus subgroups. Nine genes have been identified which encode amino(More)
Chemokines are a family of small proteins that interact with seven-transmembrane domain receptors and modulate the migration of immune cells into sites of inflammation and infection. The murine gammaherpesvirus 68 M3 gene encodes a secreted 44-kD protein with no sequence similarity to known chemokine receptors. We show that M3 binds a broad range of(More)
Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a naturally occurring herpesvirus of small free-living rodents. In order to facilitate the molecular characterization of the virus genome, a library of cloned restriction fragments has been produced and restriction enzyme cleavage maps deduced for the enzymes BamHI, EcoRI and HindIII. The MHV-68 genome comprises a region of(More)
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is able to persist in spleen cells of infected mice. To determine the cell type harbouring persistent virus, spleen cells from infected animals were separated into immunoglobulin (Ig)-positive (B cell-enriched), Ig-negative (T cell-enriched) and plastic-adherent (macrophage-enriched) fractions. These cells were(More)
A neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion-derived neuronal culture system has been utilized to study herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency establishment, maintenance, and reactivation. We present our initial characterization of viral gene expression in neurons following infection with replication-defective HSV recombinants carrying beta-galactosidase and/or green(More)
Human herpesvirus type-6 (HHV-6) is a recently isolated herpesvirus which is highly prevalent in adult populations around the world. HHV-6 was first isolated from the peripheral blood of six individuals with lymphoproliferative disorders, two of whom were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus. HHV-6, in common with other herpesviruses,(More)