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Using a rodent model of gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), we have previously shown that the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is harmful, whereas the induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is protective. In the present study, we hypothesized that the luminal nutrients arginine(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that enteral diets enriched with arginine may be harmful by enhancing inflammation. This is consistent with our gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in which arginine induced the proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase and resulted in injury and inflammation whereas glutamine was protective. We now(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertonic saline (HTS) has been shown to modulate the inflammatory response after shock. We have previously demonstrated that heme oygenase-1 (HO-1) induction is protective against gut dysfunction in models of shock-induced gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). We therefore hypothesized that HTS prevents gut inflammation, injury, and impaired transit(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that both intraischemic hypothermia and hypertonic saline resuscitation provide dramatic protection against gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury that is in part mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We therefore hypothesized that induction of HO-1 by hemin would lessen damage and improve function after gut I/R. MATERIALS AND(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age on outcome in pediatric melanoma patients and to identify factors associated with positive lymph node status in this population. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospective pediatric melanoma database, using sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), from 1992 to 2006, identified 109(More)
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been identified as an important mediator elaborated during ischemia/reperfusion, with pro- and anti-inflammatory properties having been reported. As the role of COX-2 in the small intestine remains unclear, we hypothesized that COX-2 expression would mediate mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion-induced gut injury, inflammation, and(More)
Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damages the gastrointestinal epithelia and impairs gut function. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been shown to protect organs against IR injury. We hypothesized that IPC protects the gut from IR injury. Rats were randomized to a sham group, a sham early IPC + IR group (sham IPC + SMA occlusion for 30 min and 6 h of(More)
INTRODUCTION Infants with gastroschisis (GS) have significant morbidity from dysmotility, feeding intolerance, and are at increased risk of developing intestinal failure. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID) are largely unknown, we hypothesized that mechanical constriction (nonocclusive mesenteric(More)
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury involves activation of inflammatory mediators, mucosal necrosis, ileus, and alteration in a variety of gene products. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) reduced all the effects of intestinal injury seen in IR. In an effort to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the protective effects afforded by IPC,(More)
BACKGROUND Mesenteric venous hypertension and subsequent gut edema play a pivotal role in the development of intra-abdominal hypertension. Although gut edema is one cause of intra-abdominal hypertension, its impact on gut function is unknown. The purpose of this study was to create a model of acute hydrostatic gut edema and to evaluate its effect on gut(More)