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BACKGROUND Hypertonic saline (HTS) has been shown to modulate the inflammatory response after shock. We have previously demonstrated that heme oygenase-1 (HO-1) induction is protective against gut dysfunction in models of shock-induced gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). We therefore hypothesized that HTS prevents gut inflammation, injury, and impaired transit(More)
Using a rodent model of gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), we have previously shown that the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is harmful, whereas the induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is protective. In the present study, we hypothesized that the luminal nutrients arginine(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age on outcome in pediatric melanoma patients and to identify factors associated with positive lymph node status in this population. METHODS A retrospective review of a prospective pediatric melanoma database, using sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), from 1992 to 2006, identified 109(More)
OBJECTIVE Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury involves activation of inflammatory mediators, mucosal necrosis, ileus, and alteration in a variety of gene products. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) reduced all the effects of intestinal injury seen in IR. In an effort to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the protective effects(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute edema induced by resuscitation and mesenteric venous hypertension impairs intestinal transit and contractility and reduces intestinal stiffness. Pretreatment with hypertonic saline (HS) can prevent these changes. Changes in tissue stiffness have been shown to trigger signaling cascades via stress fiber formation. We proposed that acute(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that enteral diets enriched with arginine may be harmful by enhancing inflammation. This is consistent with our gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model in which arginine induced the proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase and resulted in injury and inflammation whereas glutamine was protective. We now(More)
INTRODUCTION Infants with gastroschisis (GS) have significant morbidity from dysmotility, feeding intolerance, and are at increased risk of developing intestinal failure. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID) are largely unknown, we hypothesized that mechanical constriction (nonocclusive mesenteric(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that both intraischemic hypothermia and hypertonic saline resuscitation provide dramatic protection against gut ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury that is in part mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We therefore hypothesized that induction of HO-1 by hemin would lessen damage and improve function after gut I/R. MATERIALS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Gastroschisis (GS) is a congenital abdominal wall defect that results in the development of GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID). Transforming growth factor-β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to cause organ dysfunction through alterations in vascular and airway smooth muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects(More)
Mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damages the gastrointestinal epithelia and impairs gut function. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been shown to protect organs against IR injury. We hypothesized that IPC protects the gut from IR injury. Rats were randomized to a sham group, a sham early IPC + IR group (sham IPC + SMA occlusion for 30 min and 6 h of(More)