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BACKGROUND/AIMS Recent clinical observations reported the occurrence of amino acid substitutions at position 181 of the HBV polymerase, associated with a viral breakthrough under lamivudine or adefovir therapy. In this study, we characterized the main variants harboring the rtA181T/V mutation isolated from 10 consecutive patients who developed lamivudine(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Complex mutants may be selected under sequential anti-VHB pressures. We analyzed the genotypic and phenotypic evolution of the viral quasi-species of a patient who developed resistance to entecavir following lamivudine breakthrough. METHODS The polymerase gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced at different time points. Hepatoma cell(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Sequential anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy may lead to the selection of complex mutants. We analyzed the genetic and phenotypic evolution of the viral quasispecies of a patient who received successively lamivudine, add-on adefovir+lamivudine, followed by lamivudine+adefovir+hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIg) after orthotopic liver(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Because of the overlapping of polymerase and envelope genes in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome, nucleoside analog therapy can lead to the emergence of complex HBV variants that harbor mutations in both the reverse transcriptase and the envelope proteins. To understand the selection process of HBV variants during antiviral therapy, we(More)
A small open reading frame (ORF) in maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) was initially named "tat" by analogy with a similarly placed ORF in the primate lentiviruses. The encoded "Tat" protein was ascribed the function of up regulation of the viral transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, but we have(More)
All lentiviruses contain an open reading frame located shortly upstream or inside of the env gene and encoding a small protein which has been designated Tat. This designation was mainly with respect to the positional analogy with the first exon of the trans-activator protein of the well studied human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this work we(More)
Primate lentivirus (HIV and SIV) vpr accessory genes encode 12- to 14-kDa proteins which induce cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase of infected cells, preventing them from going through mitosis. Members of the HIV-2/SIVmac/SIVsmm group also encode a second closely related accessory protein called Vpx. Vpx and HIV Vpr are critical for virus replication in(More)
One of the major problems in gaining further insight into hepatitis B virus (HBV)/host-cell interactions is to improve the existing cellular models for the study of HBV replication. The first objective of this study was to improve the system based on transduction of HepG2 cells with a recombinant baculovirus to study HBV replication. A new HBV recombinant(More)
Frequent coinfection of hepatitis B virus genotype G with genotype A suggests that genotype G may require genotype A for replication or transmission. In this regard, genotype G is unique in having a 12-amino-acid extension in the core protein due to a 36-nucleotide insertion near the core gene translation initiation codon. The insertion alters base pairing(More)
The depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes central to the immunodeficiency in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is largely mediated by apoptosis of both infected and uninfected cells, but the mechanisms involved and the viral proteins responsible are still poorly characterized. It has recently been suggested that, in human and simian immunodeficiency virus(More)