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Cocaine strengthens excitatory synapses onto midbrain dopamine neurons through the synaptic delivery of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors. This cocaine-evoked plasticity depends on NMDA receptor activation, but its behavioral significance in the context of addiction remains elusive. Here, we generated mice lacking the GluR1, GluR2, or NR1 receptor subunits(More)
A key deficit in alcohol dependence is disrupted prefrontal function leading to excessive alcohol seeking, but the molecular events underlying the emergence of addictive responses remain unknown. Here we show by convergent transcriptome analysis that the pyramidal neurons of the infralimbic cortex are particularly vulnerable for the long-term effects of(More)
The circadian clock has been implicated in addiction and several forms of depression [1, 2], indicating interactions between the circadian and the reward systems in the brain [3-5]. Rewards such as food, sex, and drugs influence this system in part by modulating dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit, including the ventral(More)
OBJECTIVE Circadian and stress-response systems mediate environmental changes that affect alcohol drinking. Psychosocial stress is an environmental risk factor for alcohol abuse. Circadian rhythm gene period 1 (Per1) is targeted by stress hormones and is transcriptionally activated in corticotropin releasing factor-expressing cells. The authors hypothesized(More)
Daily fluctuations of the behavioral and pharmacological effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, morphine or alcohol are observed for several years. Since the discovery of the molecular components of the biological clock, the so-called "clock genes", several studies have further confirmed the inter-relationship between drugs of abuse and biological(More)
BACKGROUND In alcoholism, excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission has long been implicated in the acute withdrawal syndrome and as a key signal for dependence-related neuroplasticity. Our understanding of this pathophysiological mechanism originates largely from animal studies, but human data are needed for translation into successful medication(More)
Our study aimed to identify new candidate genes, which might be involved in alcohol craving and relapse. To find changes in gene expression after long-term alcohol consumption, we studied gene expression profiles in the striatal dopamine system by using DNA microarrays of two different alcohol-preferring rat lines (HAD and P). Our data revealed an(More)
RATIONALE In humans, the retrieval of memories associated with an alcohol-related experience frequently evokes alcohol-seeking behaviour. The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become labile and susceptible to disruption after memory retrieval. OBJECTIVES The aim of our study was to examine whether retrieval of(More)
A hyperglutamatergic state has been hypothesized to drive escalation of alcohol intake. This hypothesis predicts that an impairment of glutamate clearance through inactivation of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLAST (EAAT1), will result in escalation of alcohol consumption. Here, we used mice with a deletion of GLAST to test this prediction. WT and(More)
The effect of alcohol is known to vary with the time of the day. Although initially it was suggested that this phenomenon may be due to diurnal differences in ethanol metabolism, more recent studies were contradicting. In the present study, we therefore first set out in assessing the diurnal variations in ethanol sensitivity in mice analysing, concurrently,(More)