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BACKGROUND High blood pressure causes a change in vascular wall structure involving altered extracellular matrix composition, but how this process occurs is not fully understood. METHODS AND RESULTS Using mouse carotid arteries maintained in organ culture for 3 days, we detected increased gelatin zymographic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2(More)
The vascular wall is constantly subjected to a variety of mechanical forces in the form of stretch (tensile stress), due to blood pressure, and shear stress, due to blood flow. Alterations in either of these stresses are known to result in vascular remodeling, an adaptation characterized by modified morphology and function of the blood vessels, allowing the(More)
Hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling characterized by rearrangement of extracellular matrix proteins. To evaluate how matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 contributes to the progression of hypertensive vascular disease in vivo, wild-type (wt) or MMP-9(-/-) mice were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II; 1 microg/kg per minute, by minipump) plus a(More)
BACKGROUND In vivo tensile strain in arteries comprises 2 components: steady stretch and pulsatile stretch. However, little attention has been paid to the differential transduction of these stimuli in whole vessels. METHODS AND RESULTS Using rabbit aortas maintained in organ culture for 24 hours, we found that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was strongly(More)
The endothelium is a highly dynamic cell layer that is involved in a multitude of physiological functions, including the control of vascular tone, the movement of cells and nutrients, the maintenance of blood fluidity and the growth of new vessels. During severe sepsis, the endothelium becomes proadhesive, procoagulant, antifibrinolytic and is characterized(More)
RATIONALE Endothelial activation and apoptosis release membrane-shed microparticles (EMP) that emerge as important biological effectors. OBJECTIVE Because laminar shear stress (SS) is a major physiological regulator of endothelial survival, we tested the hypothesis that SS regulates EMP release. METHODS AND RESULTS EMP levels were quantified by flow(More)
Exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) induces a sustained pulmonary hypertension associated with structural and functional changes in the pulmonary arterial bed, including alterations of contractile properties. The small G-protein RhoA and its effector Rho kinase play a major role in the sustained rise in tension induced by vasoconstrictors. The aim of this(More)
Different forms of mechanical stimulation are among the physiological factors constantly acting on the vessel wall. We previously demonstrated that subjecting vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in culture to cyclic stretch increased the expression of high-molecular-weight caldesmon, a marker protein of a differentiated, contractile, VSMC phenotype. In the(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway in response to stretch in a blood vessel developing myogenic tone on stretch. Indeed, in resistance arteries and veins, the main effect of pressure is to induce a maintained vasoconstrictor (myogenic) tone. Isolated segments of rabbit facial vein(More)