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In its native form, the chemokine CX3CL1 is a firmly adhesive molecule promoting leukocyte adhesion and migration and hence involved, along with its unique receptor CX3CR1, in various inflammatory processes. Here we investigated the role of molecular aggregation in the CX3CL1 adhesiveness. Assays of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and(More)
Zinc is abundant in the central nervous system and regulates pain, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In vitro studies have shown that extracellular zinc modulates a plethora of signaling membrane proteins, including NMDA receptors containing the NR2A subunit, which display exquisite zinc sensitivity. We created NR2A-H128S knock-in mice to(More)
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) form glutamate-gated ion channels that have central roles in neuronal communication and plasticity throughout the brain. Dysfunctions of NMDARs are involved in several central nervous system disorders, including stroke, chronic pain and schizophrenia. One hallmark of NMDARs is that their activity can be allosterically regulated by a(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) possess in their extracellular region a large N-terminal domain (NTD) that precedes the agonist-binding domain and displays a clamshell-like architecture similar to the bacterial leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP). In addition to their role in receptor assembly, in NMDA receptors (NMDARs), the NTDs of(More)
Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in the CNS. Typically, these membrane proteins are multimeric complexes associating several homologous subunits around a central pore. Because of the large repertoire of subunits within each family, LGICs exist in vivo as multiple subtypes that differ in subunit composition and functional(More)
Reprogramming receptors to artificially respond to light has strong potential for molecular studies and interrogation of biological functions. Here, we design a light-controlled ionotropic glutamate receptor by genetically encoding a photoreactive unnatural amino acid (UAA). The photo-cross-linker p-azido-L-phenylalanine (AzF) was encoded in NMDA receptors(More)
Heterologous expression of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) in Xenopus laevis oocytes combined with site-directed mutagenesis has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach to study structure-function relationships. In particular, introducing unnatural amino acids (UAAs) has enabled modifications that are not found in natural proteins. However, the(More)
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