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In the developing human brain, the cortical sulci formation is a complex process starting from 14 weeks of gestation onward. The potential influence of underlying mechanisms (genetic, epigenetic, mechanical or environmental) is still poorly understood, because reliable quantification in vivo of the early folding is lacking. In this study, we investigate the(More)
In the human brain, the morphology of cortical gyri and sulci is complex and variable among individuals, and it may reflect pathological functioning with specific abnormalities observed in certain developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Since cortical folding occurs early during brain development, these structural abnormalities might be present long(More)
During brain development, morphological changes modify the cortex from its immature radial organization to its mature laminar appearance. Applying in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the microstructural organization of the cortex in the immature rat was analyzed and correlated to neurohistopathology. Significant differences in apparent diffusion(More)
Distinctive cerebral lesions with disruptions to the developing white matter are found in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Although hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a causal pathway, the pathogenesis of cerebral white matter injury in the VLBW infant is not fully understood. Pertinent murine models would facilitate the investigation of the processes leading to(More)
Despite medical advice, 20-30% of female smokers continue to smoke during pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have associated maternal smoking with increased risk of obesity and type-2 diabetes in the offspring. In the present study, we investigated the impact of prenatal nicotine exposure (3 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats via osmotic Alzet minipumps) on the(More)
The hippocampus is known to be vulnerable to hypoxia, stress, and undernutrition, all likely to be present in fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The effect of IUGR in preterm infants on the hippocampus was studied using 3D magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age Thirteen preterm infants born with IUGR after placental insufficiency were(More)
Significant human brain growth occurs during the third trimester, with a doubling of whole brain volume and a fourfold increase of cortical gray matter volume. This is also the time period during which cortical folding and gyrification take place. Conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and cerebral white matter injury have been(More)
OBJECTIVE Perinatal inflammation is a major risk factor for neurological deficits in preterm infants. Several experimental studies have shown that systemic inflammation can alter the programming of the developing brain. However, these studies do not offer detailed pathophysiological mechanisms, and they rely on relatively severe infectious or inflammatory(More)
The present study evaluated the potential of using the phase of T2* weighted MR images to characterize myelination during brain development and pathology in rodents at 9.4 T. Phase contrast correlated with myelin content assessed by histology and suggests that most contrast between white and cortical gray matter is modulated by myelin. Ex vivo experiments(More)
Conversion of rat proinsulins I and II was slower in transformed INS cells than in primary (islet) beta cells, with accumulation of des-64,65 but no detectable des-31,32-split proinsulin, indicating slow cleavage at the B-chain/connecting peptide (C-peptide) junction. Western blot analysis showed lower levels of the endoprotease PC1/3 in INS cells than in(More)