Stéphane Ostrowski

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We report on the energy expenditure and water flux, measured in the laboratory and in the field, of the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, the largest desert ruminant for which measurements of the field metabolic rate of free-living individuals have been made using doubly labeled water. Prior to extirpation of this species in the wild in 1972, conservationists(More)
To test whether free-living desert ungulates employ heterothermy to reduce water loss, we measured core body temperature (T(b)) of six free-living Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica), a small desert antelope (12-20 kg) that lives in the deserts of Saudi Arabia, where air temperature (T(a)) often exceeds 40 degrees C. We found that the mean(More)
To test the idea that large, free-living, desert ungulates use heterothermy to reduce water loss, we measured core body temperature (T(b)) of six free-ranging, adult Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) during 2 years in the arid desert of west-central Saudi Arabia. We report the first case of heterothermy in a free-living ruminant in a desert environment: T(b)(More)
We measured water-influx rate during the hot summer in free-ranging adult Arabian oryxes (Oryx leucoryx) in Mahazat as-Sayd, a 2,244-km2 protected area in west-central Saudi Arabia. Oryxes obtained 2,294 ml/day of water in their food and from oxidative water, the latter amounting to 14.2% of total water influx. For ungulates living in hot environments, we(More)
Animal domestication was a major step forward in human prehistory, contributing to the emergence of more complex societies. At the time of the Neolithic transition, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were probably the most abundant and important domestic livestock species in Southern Asia. Although archaeological evidence points toward the domestication of zebu(More)
The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000-12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and(More)
A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus(More)
BACKGROUND Few serological tests are available for detecting antibodies against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, the causal agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP). The complement fixation test, the test prescribed for international trade purposes, uses a crude antigen that cross-reacts with all the other mycoplasma species of the(More)
We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford’s fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using(More)
Desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. In this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an(More)