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The recently identified restriction factor tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is an interferon-inducible trans-membrane protein that restricts HIV-1 particle release in the absence of the HIV-1 countermeasure viral protein U (Vpu). It is known that Tantalus monkey CV1 cells can be rendered non-permissive to HIV-1 release upon stimulation with type 1 interferon, despite(More)
Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/RanBP2 was identified as an HIV-1 co-factor in previous studies. Here we report that HIV-1 capsid (CA) binds directly to the cyclophilin domain of Nup358/RanBP2. Fusion(More)
BACKGROUND Xenotropic murine leukaemia viruses (MLV-X) are endogenous gammaretroviruses that infect cells from many species, including humans. Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus that has been the subject of intense debate since its detection in samples from humans with prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND The evolution of HIV-1 and its immune escape to autologous neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) during the acute/early phases of infection have been analyzed in depth in many studies. In contrast, little is known about neither the long-term evolution of the virus in patients who developed broadly Nabs (bNabs) or the mechanism of escape in presence of(More)
BACKGROUND A new subgroup of HIV-1, designated Group P, was recently detected in two unrelated patients of Cameroonian origin. HIV-1 Group P phylogenetically clusters with SIVgor suggesting that it is the result of a cross-species transmission from gorillas. Until today, HIV-1 Group P has only been detected in two patients, and its degree of adaptation to(More)
As sequence data sets used for the investigation of pathogen transmission patterns increase in size, automated tools and standardized methods for cluster analysis have become necessary. We have developed an automated Cluster Picker which identifies monophyletic clades meeting user-input criteria for bootstrap support and maximum genetic distance within(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Rev protein regulates the nuclear export of intron-containing viral RNAs by recruiting the CRM1 nuclear export receptor. Here, we employed a combination of functional and phylogenetic analyses to identify and characterize a species-specific determinant within human CRM1 (hCRM1) that largely overcomes(More)
BACKGROUND Detailed local HIV-1 sequence data are essential for monitoring the HIV epidemic, for maintaining sensitive sequence-based diagnostics, and to aid in designing vaccines. RESULTS Reported here are full envelope sequences derived from 38 randomly selected HIV-1 infections identified at a Gambian clinic between 1991 and 2009. Special care was(More)
Animal cells harbour multiple innate effector mechanisms that inhibit virus replication. For the pathogenic retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), these include widely expressed restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 proteins, TRIM5-α, BST2 (refs 4, 5) and SAMHD1 (refs 6, 7), as well as additional factors that are stimulated by type 1(More)
UNLABELLED The calibrated population resistance (CPR) tool is a web-accessible program for performing standardized genotypic estimation of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. The program is linked to the Stanford HIV drug resistance database and can additionally perform viral genotyping and algorithmic estimation of resistance to specific antiretroviral(More)