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Young children are typically considered a high-risk group for disease associated with influenza virus infection. Interestingly, recent clinical reports suggested that young children were the smallest group of cases with severe pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) influenza virus infection. Here we established a newly weaned ferret model for the investigation of(More)
The major burden of influenza morbidity resides within the elderly population. The challenge managing influenza-associated illness in the elderly is the decline of immune function, where mechanisms leading to immunological senescence have not been elucidated. To better represent the immune environment, we investigated clinical morbidity and immune function(More)
Southern China experienced few cases of H7N9 during the first wave of human infections in the spring of 2013. The second and now the third waves of H7N9 infections have been localized mostly in Southern China with the Guangdong province an epicenter for the generation of novel H7N9 reassortants. Clusters of human infections show human-to-human transmission(More)
The identification of eight genes involved in inherited cobalamin (Cbl) disorders has provided insight into the complexity of the vitamin B₁₂ trafficking pathway. Detailed knowledge about the structure, interaction, and physiological functions for many of the gene products, including the MMACHC and MMADHC proteins, is lacking. Having cloned, expressed, and(More)
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been implicated in both seasonal and severe(More)
The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of(More)
Evolution of H1N1 influenza A outbreaks of the past 100 years is interesting and significantly complex and details of H1N1 genetic drift remains unknown. Here we investigated the clinical characteristics and immune cross-reactivity of significant historical H1N1 strains. We infected ferrets with H1N1 strains from 1943, 1947, 1977, 1986, 1999, and 2009 and(More)
n engl j med 374;6 nejm.org February 11, 2016 596 The authors reply: Gaylis et al. accurately describe what happens when PSA testing is curtailed, but they confuse trends in PSA levels, cancer grade, and stage distribution with evidence of the efficacy of screening. Screening tests should find disease earlier. Unfortunately, for many men with high-grade(More)
In terms of its highly pathogenic nature, there remains a significant need to further define the immune pathology of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, as well as identify correlates of immunity to help develop vaccines for severe coronaviral infections. Here we use a SARS-CoV infection-reinfection ferret model and a functional genomics approach to gain(More)
Influenza B viruses have become increasingly more prominent during influenza seasons. Influenza B infection is typically considered a mild disease and receives less attention than influenza A, but has been causing 20 to 50 % of the total influenza incidence in several regions around the world. Although there is increasing evidence of mid to lower(More)