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INTRODUCTION Current diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer Disease (AD) are mainly based on clinical definition. In France, the Delayed Matching Sample (DMS48) test, a recently introduced test that explores visual object recognition, is recommended for the early diagnosis of AD. However, little is known on the DMS48 performances of older subjects over 75 years.(More)
Interindividual differences in the rate of changes in tidal volume (V(T)) and respiratory frequency (f(R)) were examined during a maximal incremental cycling exercise. The gain of the inspiratory off-switch reflex was inferred from the V(T) vs. inspiratory duration (T(i)) relationship. Some subjects also executed a static handgrip exercise, used as a(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanical ventilation using tidal volumes around 10 ml/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure is still commonly used in anesthesia. This strategy has been shown to aggravate lung injury and inflammation in preinjured lungs but not in healthy lungs. In this study, the authors investigated whether this strategy would result in lung injury(More)
We investigated the potential inflammatory reaction induced by mechanical ventilation (MV) using 10 ml/kg tidal volume and no positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in control (C, n = 8), spontaneously breathing (SB, n = 12) and mechanically ventilated (MV, n = 12) rabbits with normal lungs. After 6 h (MV and SB groups) or immediately (C group), lungs were(More)
In anesthetized cats, with vagi cut and the spinal cord severed at the C8 level, phrenic motor and/or sensory discharge was recorded. Small afferent phrenic fibers were identified through their activation by lactic acid, hyperosmotic NaCl solution, or phenyl diguanide. They exhibited a spontaneous but irregular low-frequency discharge. Block of their(More)
The bronchomotor effects of repetitive electrical stimulation of the peripheral end of the cervical vagus nerves were studied in anaesthetized and paralysed rabbits and cats. Stimulation of either myelinated or of all motor vagal fibres was obtained by varying the duration of electrical square pulses. In rabbits, selective stimulation of myelinated vagal(More)
Respiratory distress syndrome is responsible for 40 to 60 percent mortality. An over mortality of about 10 percent could result from additional lung injury and inflammation due to the life-support mechanical ventilation, which stretches the lung. It has been recently demonstrated, in vitro, that pharmacological activation of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptors(More)
In 9 sodium pentobarbital anaesthetized cats, 50 single-unit phrenic afferent recordings were determined during spontaneous ventilation, retrograde carotid arterial injection of lactic acid (LA, 0.1 N) and NaCl (5%), and a 2-min occlusion of the superior thoracic aorta. Fifty percent of the units had tonic low-frequency spontaneous discharge; 50% had phasic(More)
Although pain and dyspnoea are common symptoms in pleural diseases, there are few studies on the sensory innervation of the pleura. Using rabbits, after removal of all muscles in the intercostal space to be studied, we investigated the afferents of the internal intercostal nerve by applying to the internal thoracic wall pieces of gauze soaked in warmed (37(More)
It was previously shown that inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) increases the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of beta endorphin in awake goats, and also that the slower ventilation induced by injection of this substance into the CSF of anesthetized dogs is suppressed after vagotomy. In the present study, performed on anesthetized rabbits, we evaluated the(More)