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Plant cells have two defense systems that detect bacterial pathogens. One is a basal defense system that recognizes complex pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A second system uses disease-resistance (R) proteins to recognize type lll effector proteins that are delivered into the plant cell by the pathogen's type III secretion system. Here we(More)
Plants have evolved a powerful immune system to defend against infection by most microbial organisms. However, successful pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, have developed countermeasures and inject virulence proteins into the host plant cell to suppress immunity and cause devastating diseases. Despite intensive research efforts, the molecular targets(More)
The ethanolamine utilization (eut) locus of Enterococcus faecalis, containing at least 19 genes distributed over four polycistronic messenger RNAs, appears to be regulated by a single adenosyl cobalamine (AdoCbl)-responsive riboswitch. We report that the AdoCbl-binding riboswitch is part of a small, trans-acting RNA, EutX, which additionally contains a(More)
ANTAR proteins are widespread bacterial regulatory proteins that have RNA-binding output domains and utilize antitermination to control gene expression at the post-initiation level. An ANTAR protein, EutV, regulates the ethanolamine-utilization genes (eut) in Enterococcus faecalis. Using this system, we present genetic and biochemical evidence of a general(More)
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