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When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus,(More)
Impairment of longitudinal growth among children with chronic renal failure (CRF) may be partly attributable to the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) activity by an excess amount of high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP). Elevated levels of immunoreactive IGFBP-4 in CRF serum are inversely correlated with the standardized heights of these(More)
The therapeutic benefits of l-arginine (ARG) supplementation in humans, often clearly observed in short-term studies, are not evident after long-term use. The mechanisms for the development of ARG tolerance are not known and cannot be readily examined in humans. We have developed a sensitive in vitro model using a low glucose/low arginine culture medium to(More)
The mechanism by which asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induces vascular oxidative stress is not well understood. In this study, we utilized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to examine the roles of ADMA cellular transport and the uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in contributing to this phenomenon. Dihydroethidium (DHE)(More)
BACKGROUND Our prior study revealed the loss in short-term L-Arginine (ARG) therapeutic efficacy after continuous exposure; resulting in tolerance development, mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) down-regulation, secondary to oxidative stress and induced glucose accumulation. However, the potential factor regulating ARG cellular response is(More)
As a heterogeneous disease, breast cancer can be divided into distinct subtypes. Among the two major subsets of estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) and ER-positive (ER+) tumors, the ER− is a more aggressive subtype, more difficult to treat, has greater ethnic disparity concerns, worse prognosis, and almost twice the risk of mortality. We provide here a(More)
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