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To explore the human T cell response to acute viral infection, we performed a longitudinal analysis of CD8(+) T cells responding to the live yellow fever virus and smallpox vaccines--two highly successful human vaccines. Our results show that both vaccines generated a brisk primary effector CD8(+) T cell response of substantial magnitude that could be(More)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this(More)
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza pandemic demonstrated the global health threat of reassortant influenza strains. Herein, we report a detailed analysis of plasmablast and monoclonal antibody responses induced by pandemic H1N1 infection in humans. Unlike antibodies elicited by annual influenza vaccinations, most neutralizing antibodies induced by pandemic(More)
We have previously shown that broadly neutralizing antibodies reactive to the conserved stem region of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) were generated in people infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Such antibodies are rarely seen in humans following infection or vaccination with seasonal influenza virus strains. However, the important question(More)
The live yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) offers a unique opportunity to study memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation in humans following an acute viral infection. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response using overlapping peptides spanning the entire viral genome. Our results showed that the YF-17D vaccine induces(More)
The different sialic acid (serogroups B, C, Y, and W-135) and nonsialic acid (serogroup A) capsular polysaccharides expressed by Neisseria meningitidis are major virulence factors and are used as epidemiologic markers and vaccine targets. However, the identification of meningococcal isolates with similar genetic markers but expressing different capsular(More)
BACKGROUND DNA vaccines have been very poorly immunogenic in humans but have been an effective priming modality in prime-boost regimens. Methods to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are needed. METHODS HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) studies 070 and 080 were multicenter, randomized, clinical trials. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1(More)
BACKGROUND The current US national stockpile of influenza H5 vaccine was produced using the antigen from the strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (a clade 1 H5 virus). Recent H5 disease has been caused by antigenically divergent H5 viruses, including A/Indonesia/05/2005 (a clade 2 H5 virus). METHODS The influence of schedule on the antibody response to 2 doses of(More)
IMPORTANCE The need to respond quickly to potential influenza pandemics is important. Immunologic priming (initial presentation of an antigen to allow antibody responses on revaccination) with vaccine directed toward an older avian influenza H5 strain might lead to secondary antibody responses to a single dose of more current H5 avian influenza vaccine. (More)
Vaccines inducing pathogen-specific cell-mediated immunity are being developed using attenuated adenoviral (Ad) vectors. We report the results of two independent Phase I trials of similar replication-deficient Ad5 vaccines containing a near-consensus HIV-1 clade B gag transgene. Healthy HIV-uninfected adults were enrolled in two separate, multicenter,(More)