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Though operationally defined as cis-regulatory elements, enhancers can also communicate with promoters on a separate homolog in trans, a mechanism that has been suggested to account for the ability of certain alleles of the same gene to complement one another in a process otherwise known as transvection. This homolog-pairing dependent process is facilitated(More)
A method for analyzing ligand-receptor binding kinetics is described, which is based on an engineered FC domain (FChk) that forms a covalent heterodimer. To validate the system, the type I IFN receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) were expressed as IFNAR1-FChk, IFNAR2-FCkh, and IFNAR1/IFNAR2-FChk fusion proteins. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis of binary(More)
Many Drosophila cytochrome P450 or Cyp genes are induced by caffeine and phenobarbital (PB). To understand the induction mechanism, we created Drosophila S2 cell lines stably transformed with different luciferase reporter plasmids carrying upstream DNAs of Cyp6a8 allele of the resistant 91-R strain, and the 1.1-kb upstream DNAs of Cyp6g1 of the 91-R and the(More)
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, a family of detoxifying enzymes, are thought to confer resistance to various insecticides including DDT. Daborn et al. [Daborn, P., Yen, J.L., Bogwitz, M., Le Goff, G., Feil, et al. 2002. A single p450 allele associated with insecticide resistance in Drosophila. Science 297, 2253-2256.] suggested that the Accord transposable(More)
Ribosomal DNA genes (rDNA) are found in tandem arrays of hundreds of repeated genes, but only a fraction of these genes are actively transcribed. The regulatory mechanism controlling the transition between active and inactive rDNA in higher eukaryotes is vital for cell survival. Here, we show that the nucleolus from Drosophila salivary gland cells contains(More)
Human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is able to suppress or activate cellular immune responses to protect the host from invading pathogens. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a viral IL-10 (ebvIL-10) in its genome that has retained the immunosuppressive activities of hIL-10 but lost the ability to induce immunostimulatory activities on(More)
Thirteen human interferon-α (IFNα) subtypes were expressed in Escherichiacoli and purified using an N-terminal affinity tag from the prodomain of subtilisin. IFNα subtypes were expressed in soluble form and purified from cell lysates or refolded and purified from inclusion bodies. Proteins produced by either protocol exhibited biological activities equal to(More)
Exogenous cytokine therapy can induce systemic toxicity, which might be prevented by activating endogenously produced cytokines in local cell niches. Here we developed antibody-based activators of cytokine signaling (AcCS), which recognize cytokines only when they are bound to their cell surface receptors. AcCS were developed for type I interferons (IFNs),(More)
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