Srikumar M. Raja

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The mechanism underlying perforin (PFN)-dependent delivery of apoptotic granzymes during cytotoxic cell granule-mediated death remains speculative. Granzyme B (GrB) and perforin were found to coexist as multimeric complexes with the proteoglycan serglycin (SG) in cytotoxic granules, and cytotoxic cells were observed to secrete exclusively macromolecular(More)
Granzyme B (GrB), acting similar to an apical caspase, efficiently activates a proteolytic cascade after intracellular delivery by perforin. Studies here were designed to learn whether the physiologic effector, GrB-serglycin, initiates apoptosis primarily through caspase-3 or through BH3-only proteins with subsequent mitochondrial permeabilization and(More)
ErbB2 (or Her2/Neu) overexpression in breast cancer signifies poorer prognosis, yet it has provided an avenue for targeted therapy as demonstrated by the success of the humanized monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin). Resistance to Trastuzumab and eventual failure in most cases, however, necessitate alternate ErbB2-targeted therapies. HSP90 inhibitors(More)
The programme of gene expression induced by RelA/NF-kappaB transcription factors is critical to the control of cell survival. Ligation of 'death receptors' such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) triggers apoptosis, as well as NF-kappaB, which counteracts this process by activating the transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. In addition to(More)
Heparin activates the serpin, antithrombin, to inhibit its target blood-clotting proteases by generating new protease interaction exosites. To resolve the effects of these exosites on the initial Michaelis docking step and the subsequent acylation and conformational change steps of antithrombin-protease reactions, we compared the reactions of catalytically(More)
Granzyme A (GzmA) is considered a major proapoptotic protease. We have discovered that GzmA-induced cell death involves rapid membrane damage that depends on the synergy between micromolar concentrations of GzmA and sublytic perforin (PFN). Ironically, GzmA and GzmB, independent of their catalytic activity, both mediated this swift necrosis. Even without(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells secrete granzymes to kill infected or transformed cells. The mannose 6-phosphate receptor (Mpr) 300 on target cells has been reported to function as receptor for secreted granzyme B. Using lymphoblasts and mouse embryonal fibroblast lines from Mpr300 and Mpr46 knockout mice, we show here that both(More)
Nanotechnology offers novel delivery vehicles for cancer therapeutics. Potential advantages of nanoscale platforms include improved pharmacokinetics, encapsulation of cytotoxic agents, enhanced accumulation of therapeutics in the tumor microenvironment, and improved therapeutic structures and bioactivity. Here, we report the design of a novel amphiphilic(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) coordinate a broad spectrum of cellular responses to extracellular stimuli and cell-cell interactions during development, tissue homeostasis, and responses to environmental challenges. Thus, an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that ensure physiological PTK function and potential aberrations of these regulatory(More)
ErbB2 overexpression drives oncogenesis in 20-30% cases of breast cancer. Oncogenic potential of ErbB2 is linked to inefficient endocytic traffic into lysosomes and preferential recycling. However, regulation of ErbB2 recycling is incompletely understood. We used a high-content immunofluorescence imaging-based kinase inhibitor screen on SKBR-3 breast cancer(More)