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Wild-type function of four Drosophila genes, spermatocyte arrest, cannonball, always early and meiosis I arrest, is required both for cell-cycle progression through the G2/M transition of meiosis I in males and for onset of spermatid differentiation. In males mutant for any one of these meiotic arrest genes, mature primary spermatocytes with partially(More)
We describe 83 recessive autosomal male-sterile mutations, generated by single P element mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Each mutation has been localized to a lettered subdivision of the polytene map. Reversion analyses, as well as complementation tests using available chromosomal deficiencies, indicate that the insertions are responsible for the(More)
Alternate forms of the PolII transcription initiation machinery have been proposed to play a role in selective activation of cell-type-specific gene expression programs during cellular differentiation. The cannonball (can) gene of Drosophila encodes a homolog of a TBP-associated factor (dTAF5) protein expressed only in spermatocytes, where it is required(More)
Formation of motile sperm in Drosophila melanogaster requires the coordination of processes such as stem cell division, mitotic and meiotic control and structural reorganization of a cell. Proper execution of spermatogenesis entails the differentiation of cells derived from two distinct embryonic lineages, the germ line and the somatic mesoderm. Through an(More)
Specific proteolytic cleavage of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein in the third variable domain (V3) has previously been reported to occur in several cell lines, including Chinese hamster ovary cells that have been used for production of Env-based HIV vaccine candidates. Here we report that this proteolytic activity on JRCSF gp120(More)
Type I IFNs are unusually pleiotropic cytokines that bind to a single heterodimeric receptor and have potent antiviral, antiproliferative, and immune modulatory activities. The diverse effects of the type I IFNs are of differential therapeutic importance; in cancer therapy, an enhanced antiproliferative effect may be beneficial, whereas in the therapy of(More)
BACKGROUND Blockade of CD28-mediated T cell costimulation by a modified cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4-Ig), belatacept, is a clinically effective immunosuppressive therapy for the prevention of renal allograft rejection. Use of belatacept-based calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression, however, has demonstrated an increased frequency(More)
The CTLA4-Ig fusion proteins abatacept and belatacept inhibit CD28-mediated T cell activation by binding CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) costimulatory ligands and are clinically proven immunosuppressants used for rheumatoid arthritis and renal transplantation, respectively. Abatacept and belatacept preferentially bind CD80, yet CD86 has been implicated as the(More)
The CTLA4-Ig therapeutics abatacept and belatacept inhibit CD28-mediated T cell activation by binding CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) co-stimulatory ligands. Both compounds preferentially bind CD80, yet CD86 has been implicated as the dominant co-stimulatory ligand. Using directed evolution methods, novel CTLA4-Ig variants were created with selective CD86(More)
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