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We identified a 'semicircular' compartment of the rat thyropharyngeus muscle at the pharyngoesophageal junction and used the glycogen depletion method to determine how the fibers of this muscle (as well as all others of the pharynx and larynx) are innervated by different cranial nerve branches. The semicircular compartment appears anatomically homologous to(More)
The study is aimed at investigating the possible involvement of adrenergic mechanisms in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) for modulation of sleep-wakefulness in rats. In this study, saline, norepinephrine (NE), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) and propranolol (PROP) were injected in the mPOA in different groups of male rats during the day and night. NE and PBZ were(More)
The study investigated the possible interrelationship between changes in sleep-wakefulness and body temperature, primarily induced by manipulation of the noradrenergic system in the medial preoptic area. Saline, norepinephrine, and its alpha- and beta-blockers were injected in the medial preoptic area and in some control areas of rats, during their sleeping(More)
The study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of tonic activity of the adrenergic receptors in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) for maintenance of body temperature in rats. Differences in drug-induced changes in body temperatures during sleep and wakefulness--during the day and at night--were also investigated. Norepinephrine injected in the(More)
The study makes an attempt to find out the action of norepinephrine (NE) and phenoxybenzamine (PB), applied at medial preoptic area (mPOA), in altering the sleep-awake responses, in free moving rats, which has not yet been reported. Effects of application of NE during day and PB during night, at mPOA, on sleep-awake responses, were compared with application(More)
Several experimental results indicate that the peribrachial (PB) cholinergic area of the pedunculopontine nucleus is the final relay for the transfer of brainstem-generated pontogeniculo-occipital (PGO) waves to the thalamus. However, the mechanisms underlying the PGO-related activity of PB neurons remain unknown. In order to study these mechanisms, single(More)
In contrast with most dorsal thalamic nuclei, the anterior thalamic (AT) complex is devoid of input from the reticular (RE) thalamic nucleus. Instead, it is interposed in a limbic circuit linking the mammillary bodies (MB) to various allo- and periallocortical fields. To investigate the electrophysiological consequences of this peculiar pattern of(More)
The influence of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) on the medial preoptic unit activity was studied in urethane anesthetized rats. Alterations in the unit activity were also correlated with cortical EEG changes. A fourth of the medial preoptic units showed alterations in their discharges with cortical EEG changes. These units were also(More)
The malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits several morphological and developmental stages. We have quantified the level of expression of a battery of genes in the ring and trophozoite stage-two of the most prominent stages in the erythrocytic development of the parasite. Using optimized RT-PCR, we observed that some of the genes show a large(More)