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Many functions of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) have been defined, but relatively little is known about the biology of an alternative mTOR complex, mTORC2. We showed that conditional deletion of rictor, an essential subunit of mTORC2, impaired differentiation into T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells without diversion into FoxP3(+)(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated aminopeptidase (ERAP)1 has been implicated in the final proteolytic processing of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. To evaluate the in vivo role of ERAP1, we have generated ERAP1-deficient mice. Cell surface expression of the class Ia molecules H-2Kb and H-2Db and of the(More)
Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing(More)
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell-derived cytokines have important functions in inflammation, host defense, and immunoregulation. Yet, when and how iNKT cells undergo effector differentiation, which endows them with the capacity to rapidly secrete cytokines upon activation, remains unknown. We discovered that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW There is ample evidence indicating a pathologic role for minor histocompatibility antigens in inciting graft-versus-host disease in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched bone marrow transplantation and rejection of solid organ allografts. Here we review the current knowledge of the genetic and biochemical bases for the cause of(More)
Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, causes substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in oocysts formed in the mosquito gut wall and then invade the salivary glands, where they remain until transmitted to the vertebrate host during a mosquito bite. The Plasmodium circumsporozoite(More)
It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to(More)
Cytoplasmic Ags derived from viruses, cytosolic bacteria, tumors, and allografts are presented to T cells by MHC class I or class II molecules. In the case of class II-restricted Ags, professional APCs acquire them during uptake of dead class II-negative cells and present them via a process called indirect presentation. It is generally assumed that the(More)
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