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Neurotransmitter released from neurons is known to signal to neighbouring neurons and glia. Here we demonstrate an additional signalling pathway in which glutamate is released from astrocytes and causes an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor-mediated increase in neuronal calcium. Internal calcium was elevated and glutamate release stimulated by application(More)
The mechanism responsible for the ability of bradykinin to cause calcium-dependent release of glutamate from astrocytes in vitro was investigated. The glutamate transport inhibitor, dihydrokainate, did not block bradykinin-induced glutamate release, and bradykinin did not cause cell swelling. These data exclude the involvement of glutamate transporters or(More)
Bradykinin induces receptor-mediated calcium-dependent release of glutamate from cultured astrocytes through a mechanism that is neither due to cell-swelling mechanism nor due to the reversal of the glutamate transporter. Astrocytes may thus release glutamate using a mechanism resembling the neuronal vesicular release of neurotransmitters. Synaptobrevin is(More)
ATP caused a dose-dependent, receptor-mediated increase in the release of glutamate and aspartate from cultured astrocytes. Using calcium imaging in combination HPLC we found that the increase in intracellular calcium coincided with an increase in glutamate and aspartate release. Competitive antagonists of P(2) receptors blocked the response to ATP. The(More)
Bradykinin caused a receptor-mediated increase in release of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate and aspartate from Schwann cell cultures obtained from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) together with an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free calcium. Perturbations which inhibited brady-kinin-induced calcium mobilization prevented the release of EAAs from(More)
Bradykinin is a nonapeptide that plays a central role in the production of pain and inflammation. A horizontal spinal cord slice preparation with attached dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion was used to study the effect of bradykinin on afferent fibers. Intracellular recordings were made from dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons. Bath application(More)
In order for stem cells to fulfill their clinical promise, we must understand their developmental transitions and it must be possible to control the differentiation of stem cells into specific cell fates. To understand the mechanism of the sequential restriction and multipotency of stem cells, we have established culture conditions that allow the(More)
The release of excitatory amino acids from Schwann cell cultures in the rat was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography. The basal concentration of glutamate and aspartate was 33 +/- 4 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 12) and 8 +/- 1 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 12), respectively. ATP (100 microM) caused a receptor-mediated increase in release of(More)
Intracellular recordings from neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn (DH), in an in vitro spinal cord-dorsal root ganglion preparation, were used to investigate the role of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) afferent fibers in the sensory synaptic transmission in the superficial DH. Bath application of 25-50 mM potassium to the DRG(More)
An MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanosphere-based (MSN) controlled-release delivery system has been synthesized and characterized using surface-derivatized cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocrystals as chemically removable caps to encapsulate several pharmaceutical drug molecules and neurotransmitters inside the organically functionalized MSN mesoporous framework.(More)