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Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a frequent byproduct of virus infection, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to mediate innate immune response to virus infection. TLR3 signaling activates the transcription factor IRF-3 by its Ser/Thr phosphorylation, accompanied by its dimerization and nuclear translocation. It has been reported that the Ser/Thr(More)
Effective eradication of cancer requires treatment directed against multiple targets. The p53 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways are dysregulated in nearly all tumors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic activation and inhibition, respectively. We have isolated and structurally optimized small molecules, curaxins, that simultaneously activate(More)
Mammalian cells respond to virus infection or other viral stresses, such as double-stranded (ds) RNA and interferons (IFN), by robust and rapid induction of viral stress-inducible proteins. The induction and actions of one such protein, the human P56, have been extensively studied. However, little is known about the distantly related mouse proteins, MuP56(More)
IL-13 is a Th2 cytokine that promotes alternative activation (M2 polarization) in primary human monocytes. Our studies have characterized the functional IL-13 receptor complex and the downstream signaling events in response to IL-13 stimulation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. In this report, we present evidence that IL-13 induces the(More)
Development of safe and effective tumor-preventive treatments for high-risk patient populations and therapies for early-stage cancer remains a critical need in oncology. We have recently discovered compound with anticancer activity, Curaxin-137, which modulates several important signaling pathways involved in even the very early stages of cancer. In tumor(More)
Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) as a mechanism of host defense against infection and stress is the central mediator of inflammatory responses. A normal (acute) inflammatory response is activated on urgent basis and is auto-regulated. Chronic inflammation that results due to failure in the regulatory mechanism, however, is largely considered(More)
The interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) ISG56 and ISG54 are strongly induced in cultured cells by type I interferons (IFNs), viruses, and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activate their transcription by various signaling pathways. Here we studied the stimulus-dependent induction of both genes in vivo. dsRNA, which is generated during virus infection,(More)
IL-13 induces profound expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in primary human monocytes. Our studies have defined the functional IL-13R complex, association of Jaks with the receptor components, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several Stat molecules in response to IL-13. Furthermore, we identified both p38MAPK and protein kinase Cδ as critical(More)
2'-5' oligoadenylate (2-5 (A)) synthetases are major components of the antiviral pathways induced by interferons. In the presence of double-stranded RNA, they polymerize ATP to form 2-5 (A) oligomers that, in turn, activate the latent ribonuclease RNase L, causing mRNA degradation. These enzymes, unlike other nucleotidyl transferases, catalyze 2'-5', not(More)
Unlike other RNA polymerases, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases, a family of interferon-induced enzymes, catalyze the formation of 2'-5', not 3'-5', phosphodiester bonds. Moreover, to be active, these proteins require double-stranded RNA as a cofactor. We have been identifying the specific residues of these proteins that impart their novel properties. Here,(More)
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