Spotswood L. Spruance

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Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) infect epithelial cells, become localized in neurons, and can reactivate in response to a variety of stimuli, including ultraviolet light and hyperthermia. The sequence of gene activation during viral replication is known, but the molecular linkage between exogenous stimuli and HSV reactivation has not been determined. It was(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine produced in many tissues, including the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. IL-6 acts by binding to its specific receptor, stimulating a cascade of signal proteins that induce the transcription factors NF-IL6 and STAT3. These IL-6-induced transcription factors change cellular gene transcription. Neutralization of(More)
Time-to-event curves analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression are commonly used to describe the outcome of drug studies. This methodology has the advantage of using all available information, including patients who fail to complete the trial, such as in cancer chemotherapy or human immunodeficiency virus antiviral treatment studies. The goal of(More)
BACKGROUND Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papillomavirus. Imiquimod is a novel immune-response modifier capable of inducing a variety of cytokines, including interferon alfa, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as well as interleukins 1, 6, and 8. In animal models imiquimod has demonstrated antiviral, antitumor, and(More)
Acyclovir cream has been available for the treatment of herpes labialis in numerous countries outside the United States for over a decade. Evidence for its efficacy comes from a few small clinical trials conducted in the 1980s. To examine more comprehensively the efficacy and safety of this formulation, we conducted two independent, identical, parallel,(More)
BACKGROUND An effective prophylactic vaccine would help control the spread of genital herpes. METHODS We conducted two double-blind, randomized trials of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein-D-subunit vaccine with alum and 3-O-deacylated-monophosphoryl lipid A in subjects whose regular sexual partners had a history of genital herpes. In(More)
Genital human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Imiquimod is a new agent, an immune-response modifier, that has been demonstrated to have potent in vivo antiviral and antitumor effects in animal models. The present prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled trial evaluated the(More)
Immunopathology is recognized as an important component of infectious disease manifestations, and corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antimicrobial therapy for a variety of conditions. Antiviral therapy of herpes labialis has been shown to result in only a small reduction in the time to healing and the duration of pain. To determine if topical(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which often follows a relapsing-remitting (RR) course with discrete attacks. MS attacks have been associated with upper respiratory infections (URIs), but the specific viruses responsible have not been identified. We studied a cohort of 16 RRMS patients experiencing(More)
Excretion of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the oral cavity was studied in eight human subjects with a history of herpes labialis. Serial intraoral specimens were obtained by gargling broth and examined for virus by centrifugal inoculation of primary human amnion cells. Forty-seven of 637 specimens (7.4%) contained HSV. The majority of isolates (62%) were(More)