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UNLABELLED The HyPhypackage is designed to provide a flexible and unified platform for carrying out likelihood-based analyses on multiple alignments of molecular sequence data, with the emphasis on studies of rates and patterns of sequence evolution. AVAILABILITY http://www.hyphy.org CONTACT muse@stat.ncsu.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION(More)
SUMMARY PowerMarker delivers a data-driven, integrated analysis environment (IAE) for genetic data. The IAE integrates data management, analysis and visualization in a user-friendly graphical user interface. It accelerates the analysis lifecycle and enables users to maintain data integrity throughout the process. An ever-growing list of more than 50(More)
Codon models of evolution have facilitated the interpretation of selective forces operating on genomes. These models, however, assume a single rate of non-synonymous substitution irrespective of the nature of amino acids being exchanged. Recent developments have shown that models which allow for amino acid pairs to have independent rates of substitution(More)
Studies of microbial eukaryotes have been pivotal in the discovery of biological phenomena, including RNA editing, self-splicing RNA, and telomere addition. Here we extend this list by demonstrating that genome architecture, namely the extensive processing of somatic (macronuclear) genomes in some ciliate lineages, is associated with elevated rates of(More)
The accumulation of divergent histone H4 amino acid sequences within and between ciliate lineages challenges traditional views of the evolution of this essential eukaryotic protein. We analyzed histone H4 sequences from 13 species of ciliates and compared these data with sequences from well-sampled eukaryotic clades. Ciliate histone H4s differ from one(More)
Markov models of codon substitution are powerful inferential tools for studying biological processes such as natural selection and preferences in amino acid substitution. The equilibrium character distributions of these models are almost always estimated using nucleotide frequencies observed in a sequence alignment, primarily as a matter of historical(More)
The choice of a probabilistic model to describe sequence evolution can and should be justified. Underfitting the data through the use of overly simplistic models may miss out on interesting phenomena and lead to incorrect inferences. Overfitting the data with models that are too complex may ascribe biological meaning to statistical artifacts and result in(More)
The single rate codon model of non-synonymous substitution is ubiquitous in phylogenetic modeling. Indeed, the use of a non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratio parameter has facilitated the interpretation of selection pressure on genomes. Although the single rate model has achieved wide acceptance, we argue that the assumption of a single rate(More)
While molecular analyses have provided insight into the phylogeny of ciliates, the few studies assessing intraspecific variation have largely relied on just a single locus [e.g., nuclear small subunit rDNA (nSSU-rDNA) or mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I]. In this study, we characterize the diversity of several nuclear protein-coding genes plus both(More)
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