Spencer C. Liang

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Th17 cells are a distinct lineage of effector CD4(+) T cells characterized by their production of interleukin (IL)-17. We demonstrate that Th17 cells also expressed IL-22, an IL-10 family member, at substantially higher amounts than T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cells. Similar to IL-17A, IL-22 expression was initiated by transforming growth factor beta signaling in(More)
IL-17A and IL-17F are related homodimeric proteins of the IL-17 family produced by Th17 cells. In this study, we show that mouse Th17 cells also produce an IL-17F/A heterodimeric protein. Whereas naive CD4(+) T cells differentiating toward the Th17 cell lineage expressed IL-17F/A in higher amounts than IL-17A/A homodimer and in lower amounts than IL-17F/F(More)
Programmed death 1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor expressed on activated lymphocytes, regulates tolerance and autoimmunity. PD-1 has two ligands: PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), which is expressed broadly on hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, including pancreatic islet cells; and PD-L2, which is restricted to macrophages and dendritic cells. To investigate whether(More)
Both positive and negative regulatory roles have been suggested for the B7 family member PD-L1(B7-H1). PD-L1 is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs), activated T cells, and a variety of tissues, but the functional significance of PD-L1 on each cell type is not yet clear. To dissect the functions of PD-L1 in vivo, we generated PD-L1-deficient(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by dysregulated interactions between autoreactive T and B lymphocytes and the development of anti-nuclear Abs. The recently described pleiotropic cytokine IL-21 has been shown to regulate B cell differentiation and function. IL-21 is produced by activated T lymphocytes and its(More)
Newer members of the B7-CD28 superfamily include the receptor PD-1 and its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Here, we characterize the expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in tissues of naive miceand in target organs from two models of autoimmunity, the pancreas from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and brain from mice with experimental autoimmune(More)
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi)CD25(-) cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and(More)
Interactions between CD8+ T cells and endothelial cells are important in both protective and pathologic immune responses. Endothelial cells regulate the recruitment of CD8+ T cells into tissues, and the activation of CD8+ T cells by antigen presentation and costimulatory signals. PD-L1 and PD-L2 are recently described B7-family molecules which bind to PD-1(More)
IL-22 is made by a unique set of innate and adaptive immune cells, including the recently identified noncytolytic NK, lymphoid tissue-inducer, Th17, and Th22 cells. The direct effects of IL-22 are restricted to nonhematopoietic cells, its receptor expressed on the surface of only epithelial cells and some fibroblasts in various organs, including parenchymal(More)
To compare the roles of programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in regulating immunity to infection, we investigated responses of mice lacking PD-L1 or PD-L2 to infection with Leishmania mexicana. PD-L1(-/-) and PD-L2(-/-) mice exhibited distinct disease outcomes following infection with L. mexicana. In comparison to susceptible WT mice, PD-L1(-/-)(More)