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The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in frontoinsular (FI) and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans, but not other primates. We performed stereological counts of the VENs in FI and LA (limbic anterior, a component of anterior cingulate cortex) in great apes and in humans. The VENs are more numerous in humans than in(More)
Extensive work has been done for optimal management of scratch-pad memory (SPM) all assuming that the SPM is assigned a fixed address space. The main target objects to be placed on the SPM have been code and global memory since their sizes and locations are not changed dynamically. We propose a novel idea of dynamic address mapping of SPM with the(More)
The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with(More)
The claustrum and the insula are closely juxtaposed in the brain of the prosimian primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Whether the claustrum has closer affinities with the cortex or the striatum has been debated for many decades. Our observation of histological sections from primate brains and genomic data in the mouse suggest former. Given(More)
The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in frontoinsular (FI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in great apes and humans but not other primates. We stereologically counted the VENs in FI and the limbic anterior (LA) area of ACC and found them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, VENs first appear in small numbers(More)
The enzymatic activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) leads to a histone deacetylation-mediated condensed chromatic structure, resulting in transcriptional repression, which has been implicated in the modifications of neural circuits and behaviors. Repeated treatment with electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) induces changes in histone acetylation, expression of(More)
Roadside Unit (RSU) is an essential unit in a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) for collecting and analyzing traffic data given from smart vehicles. Furthermore, RSUs can take part in controlling traffic flow for vehicle's secure driving by broadcasting locally analyzed data, forwarding some important messages, and communicating with other RSUs, and soon. In(More)
The functional features of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 (HAC01), isolated from fermented Korean kimchi, were studied with regard to the fat mass, immunometabolic biomarkers and dysbiosis in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) served as reference strain and a PBS-treated group as control. The administration of L. plantarum HAC01(More)
In this paper, we propose a timestamp series approach to defend against Sybil attack in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based on roadside unit support. The proposed approach targets the initial deployment stage of VANET when basic roadside unit (RSU) support infrastructure is available and a small fraction of vehicles have network communication(More)
—In this paper, we propose two certificate mechanisms for preventing the Sybil attack in a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET): the timestamp series approach and the temporary certificate approach. We focus on an early-stage VANET when the number of smart vehicles is only a small fraction of the vehicles on the road and the only infrastructure components(More)