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Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving both genetic and epigenetic changes. Since epigenetic changes like histone modifications are potentially reversible processes, much effort has been directed toward understanding this mechanism with the goal of finding novel therapies as well as more refined diagnostic and prognostic tools in breast(More)
Aberrant epigenetic changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation are hallmarks of most cancers, whereas histone methylation was previously considered to be irreversible and less versatile. Recently, several histone demethylases were identified catalyzing the removal of methyl groups from histone H3 lysine residues and thereby influencing gene(More)
Tumor cells at the tumor margin lose epithelial properties and acquire features of mesenchymal cells, a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, features of EMT were shown to be linked to cells with tumor-founding capability, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors, such as(More)
Post-translational modifications of histones by chromatin modifying enzymes regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. As deregulation of histone modifications contributes to cancer progression, inhibition of chromatin modifying enzymes such as histone demethylases is an attractive therapeutic strategy to impair cancer growth. Lysine-specific(More)
Cancer is traditionally viewed as a primarily genetic disorder. However, it is now increasingly apparent that epigenetic abnormalities play a fundamental role in cancer development. Aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes has been implicated in the course of tumor initiation and progression. The discovery of a large number of histone demethylases(More)
Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer and no curative options are available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger prostate cancer metastasis and androgen independence. Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are epigenetic enzymes that can remove both repressive and(More)
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood, is derived from neural crest progenitor cells. The TFAP2a transcription factor regulates neural crest patterning. We analysed TFAP2a protein expression in 97 primary neuroblastic tumors and report that TFAP2a was strongly expressed in poorly differentiated neuroblastomas. TFAP2a(More)
Histone modifying enzymes confer epigenetic marks, directing the changes in gene expression required for diverse cellular processes. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) functions as a transcriptional coregulator by demethylating histone H3 on lysine 4 and lysine 9. Analyzing transcriptomes on microarrays, we identified genes which represent(More)
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