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Reward from a particular action is seldom immediate, and the influence of such delayed outcome on choice decreases with delay. It has been postulated that when faced with immediate and delayed rewards, decision makers choose the option with maximum temporally discounted value. We examined the preference of monkeys for delayed reward in an intertemporal(More)
In choosing between different rewards expected after unequal delays, humans and animals often prefer the smaller but more immediate reward, indicating that the subjective value or utility of reward is depreciated according to its delay. Here, we show that neurons in the primate caudate nucleus and ventral striatum modulate their activity according to(More)
Impulsivity refers to a set of heterogeneous behaviors that are tuned suboptimally along certain temporal dimensions. Impulsive intertemporal choice refers to the tendency to forego a large but delayed reward and to seek an inferior but more immediate reward, whereas impulsive motor responses also result when the subjects fail to suppress inappropriate(More)
Subjective values of actions are influenced by the uncertainty and immediacy of expected rewards. Multiple brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, are implicated in selecting actions according to their subjective values. Alterations in these neural circuits, therefore, might contribute to symptoms of impulsive choice behaviors in(More)
Humans and animals often must choose between rewards that differ in their qualities, magnitudes, immediacy, and likelihood, and must estimate these multiple reward parameters from their experience. However, the neural basis for such complex decision making is not well understood. To understand the role of the primate prefrontal cortex in determining the(More)
Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity(More)
Humans and animals are more likely to take an action leading to an immediate reward than actions with delayed rewards of similar magnitudes. Although such devaluation of delayed rewards has been almost universally described by hyperbolic discount functions, the rate of this temporal discounting varies substantially among different animal species. This might(More)
The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in(More)
The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane has been recognized as a well-defined molecular epitope of cells undergoing apoptosis. Examination and monitoring of PS exposure is an extensively used molecular marker in non-invasive apoptosis imaging under a variety of clinical conditions,(More)