Learn More
Reward from a particular action is seldom immediate, and the influence of such delayed outcome on choice decreases with delay. It has been postulated that when faced with immediate and delayed rewards, decision makers choose the option with maximum temporally discounted value. We examined the preference of monkeys for delayed reward in an intertemporal(More)
In choosing between different rewards expected after unequal delays, humans and animals often prefer the smaller but more immediate reward, indicating that the subjective value or utility of reward is depreciated according to its delay. Here, we show that neurons in the primate caudate nucleus and ventral striatum modulate their activity according to(More)
Impulsivity refers to a set of heterogeneous behaviors that are tuned suboptimally along certain temporal dimensions. Impulsive intertemporal choice refers to the tendency to forego a large but delayed reward and to seek an inferior but more immediate reward, whereas impulsive motor responses also result when the subjects fail to suppress inappropriate(More)
Subjective values of actions are influenced by the uncertainty and immediacy of expected rewards. Multiple brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, are implicated in selecting actions according to their subjective values. Alterations in these neural circuits, therefore, might contribute to symptoms of impulsive choice behaviors in(More)
Protein chips are a powerful emerging technology with extensive biomedical applications. However, the development of optimal, economical surface materials capable of maintaining the activity of embedded proteins is a challenge. Here, we introduce a new optimized, low-cost, sol-gel biomaterial for use in protein chips with femtogram-level sensitivity. A(More)
Humans and animals often must choose between rewards that differ in their qualities, magnitudes, immediacy, and likelihood, and must estimate these multiple reward parameters from their experience. However, the neural basis for such complex decision making is not well understood. To understand the role of the primate prefrontal cortex in determining the(More)
The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity to the antigens of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is important for the early stage diagnosis of its infection. Aptamers are short, single-stranded oligonucleotides with the ability to specifically recognize target molecules with high affinity. Herein, we report the selection of RNA aptamers that bind(More)
TGFBI, a transforming growth factor β-induced extracellular matrix protein, circulates at a level of ~300ng/ml in humans and modulates several integrin-mediated cellular functions. The protein contains an N-terminal EMI domain, four consecutive FAS1 domains, and the RGD motif. Each FAS1 domain and the RGD motif have been known to interact with avb3(More)
The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity to small molecules is crucial for the high-throughput detection of chemical compounds, such as toxicants or pollutants. Aptamers are short and single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotides able to recognize target molecules with high affinity. Here, we report the selection of ssDNA aptamers that bind to(More)
This paper reports for the first time the application of sol-gel microarrays for immobilizing nonsoluble small chemicals (Bisphenol-A; BPA). Also, known problems of sol-gel adhesion to conventional microtiter well plate substrates are circumvented by anchoring the sol-gel microspots to a porous silion surface so-called, PS-SG chips. We confirmed low(More)