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Reward from a particular action is seldom immediate, and the influence of such delayed outcome on choice decreases with delay. It has been postulated that when faced with immediate and delayed rewards, decision makers choose the option with maximum temporally discounted value. We examined the preference of monkeys for delayed reward in an intertemporal(More)
In choosing between different rewards expected after unequal delays, humans and animals often prefer the smaller but more immediate reward, indicating that the subjective value or utility of reward is depreciated according to its delay. Here, we show that neurons in the primate caudate nucleus and ventral striatum modulate their activity according to(More)
Humans and animals often must choose between rewards that differ in their qualities, magnitudes, immediacy, and likelihood, and must estimate these multiple reward parameters from their experience. However, the neural basis for such complex decision making is not well understood. To understand the role of the primate prefrontal cortex in determining the(More)
Humans and animals are more likely to take an action leading to an immediate reward than actions with delayed rewards of similar magnitudes. Although such devaluation of delayed rewards has been almost universally described by hyperbolic discount functions, the rate of this temporal discounting varies substantially among different animal species. This might(More)
Subjective values of actions are influenced by the uncertainty and immediacy of expected rewards. Multiple brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, are implicated in selecting actions according to their subjective values. Alterations in these neural circuits, therefore, might contribute to symptoms of impulsive choice behaviors in(More)
It has been hypothesized that the brain uses combinatorial as well as temporal coding strategies to represent stimulus properties. The mechanisms and properties of the temporal coding remain undetermined, although it has been postulated that oscillations can mediate formation of this type of code. Here we use a generic model of the vertebrate olfactory bulb(More)
The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane has been recognized as a well-defined molecular epitope of cells undergoing apoptosis. Examination and monitoring of PS exposure is an extensively used molecular marker in non-invasive apoptosis imaging under a variety of clinical conditions,(More)
BENCHMARKS Recently developed technologies such as microarray analysis allow researchers to determine the genome-wide patterns of expressed genes. This information provides insight into complex regulatory networks, enables the identification of new or underexplored biological processes, and implicates genes in various disease processes (1). While(More)