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Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS, 1 EC 1.14.13.39) are hemeproteins that catalyze oxidation of L-arginine to NO ⅐ and L-citrulline. Three main isozymes exist in mammals that are regulated by distinct genes (1– 6): a constitutive neuronal NOS (nNOS or NOS I), (7, 8), an endotoxin-and cytokine-inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS II) (9, 10), and a constitutive endothelial(More)
Phagocytes mediate their innate immunological response by releasing products that damage invading microorganisms. These products include proteins such as lysozyme, peroxidases, and elastase as well as reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hypohalous acid, and hydroxyl radical. Although it is clear that many phagocytic secretory(More)
With an eye toward the development of nitroxides as potential contrast enhancing agents for MRI applications, we have compared the rates of reduction of 24 nitroxides of diverse structures by rat whole liver homogenate, hepatocytes, subcellular fractions, and ascorbate (10 eq excess). Our results indicate that five-membered ring nitroxides and alpha-carboxy(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is one of the leading causes of severe visual loss in the United States. Numerous risk factors have been investigated, but the pathogenesis of ARMD has remained elusive. The authors propose that ARMD develops as a direct result of photosensitization of the vascular endothelium of the choriocapillaris, Bruch's(More)
Brain sigma-type receptors are thought to mediate hallucinogenic effects of certain benzomorphan opiates in humans. The biochemical characterization of sigma receptors has been difficult because of the lack of potent and selective ligands. We report here the synthesis and characterization of a tritiated, symmetrically substituted guanidine derivative,(More)
The historical antimalarial compound endochin served as a structural lead for optimization. Endochin-like quinolones (ELQ) were prepared by a novel chemical route and assessed for in vitro activity against multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and against malaria infections in mice. Here we describe the pathway to discovery of a potent class(More)
Human babesiosis is a tick-borne multisystem disease caused by Babesia species of the apicomplexan phylum. Most clinical cases and fatalities of babesiosis are caused by Babesia microti Current treatment for human babesiosis consists of two drug combinations, atovaquone + azithromycin or quinine + clindamycin. These treatments are associated with adverse(More)
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS I) has been shown to generate nitric oxide (NO*) and superoxide (O(2)* during enzymatic cycling, and the ratio of each free radical is dependent upon the concentration of L-arginine. Using spin trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we detected alpha-hydroxyethyl radical (CH(3)*CHOH), produced during(More)
Thirteen 4,5-epoxymorphinan mu agonists with established analgesic action were docked into an Asp-Lys-His-Phe pseudoreceptor complex under a range of distance-dependent dielectric conditions. The number of compounds with potential energies of the docked complexes that agreed in rank order with corresponding analgesic potencies was determined for each(More)
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