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PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of dipeptide monoester ganciclovir (GCV) prodrugs with the goal of improving ocular bioavailability of GCV from topical ophthalmic solutions. METHODS Solubility, logP, pH-stability profile, permeability, interaction with corneal peptide transporter, and in vivo efficacy against herpes simplex virus(More)
Injectable lipid emulsions, for decades, have been clinically used as an energy source for hospitalized patients by providing essential fatty acids and vitamins. Recent interest in utilizing lipid emulsions for delivering lipid soluble therapeutic agents, intravenously, has been continuously growing due to the biocompatible nature of the lipid-based(More)
The bioavailability of drugs is often severely limited due to the presence of biological barriers in the form of epithelial tight junctions, efflux proteins and enzymatic degradation. Physicochemical properties, such as lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge, etc., also play key roles in determining the permeation properties of drug candidates. As a(More)
Metabolism is one of the primary routes of drug elimination from the body. This process comprises of mechanisms, such as oxidation and conjugation, which lead to inactivation and/or elimination from hepatic, biliary, pulmonary, renal and ocular tissues. Enzymes involved in metabolism are expressed in various tissues of the body, liver being the primary(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the use of Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of an active ingredient in hot-melt extruded film formulations. Clotrimazole and ketoprofen were used as the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the subject formulations. Films were prepared with contents varying from 1 to 20%(More)
In today's pharmaceutical arena, it is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities produced during drug discovery efforts exhibit poor solubility characteristics. However, over the last decade hot-melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as a powerful processing technology for drug delivery and has opened the door to a host of molecules previously(More)
The objective of this study was to formulate directly compressible rapidly disintegrating tablets of fenoverine with sufficient mechanical integrity, content uniformity, and acceptable palatability to assist patients of any age group for easy administration. Effect of varying concentrations of different superdisintegrants such as crospovidone,(More)
PURPOSE The major objectives were to investigate functional expression of nucleoside transporters on the rabbit cornea and to delineate mechanism of corneal permeation of acyclovir (ACV) and idoxuridine (IDU). Methods. Transport studies were conducted with isolated rabbit corneas at 34 degrees C using [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]ACV and [(3)H]IDU. RESULTS(More)
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can either be produced by hot homogenization of melted lipids at higher temperatures or by a cold homogenization process. This paper proposes and demonstrates the formulation of SLN for pharmaceutical applications by combining two processes: hot melt extrusion (HME) technology for melt-emulsification and high-pressure(More)
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to develop and characterize indomethacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IN-SLNs; 0.1% w/v) for ocular delivery. METHODS Various lipids, homogenization pressures/cycles, Tween 80 fraction in the mixture of surfactants (Poloxamer 188 and Tween 80; total surfactant concentration at 1% w/v), and pH were investigated in(More)