Soumya Swaminathan

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BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top 10 causes of death among children worldwide; however, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs and are neglected in this epidemic. Recent technological advancements in diagnosis of TB in adults have not been validated in children. Similarly, trials of new drugs and development of pediatric(More)
BACKGROUND Our aim was to study the incidence and pattern of dyslipidemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) who received once-daily antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients with TB were recruited to a trial of once-daily nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor(More)
There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective(More)
The solution-state three-dimensional structure of the DNA aptamer d(G1G2T3T4G5G6T7G8T9G10G11T12T13G14G15) which binds to and inhibits thrombin has recently been determined by NMR methods (Wang et al., 1993). This DNA adopts a highly compact, highly symmetrical structure which consists of two tetrads of guanosine base pairs and three loops. The basic(More)
The design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of the novel carbocycles as transition-state-based inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase (NA) are described. The double bond position in the carbocyclic analogues plays an important role in NA inhibition as demonstrated by the antiviral activity of 8 (IC50 = 6.3 microM) vs 9 (IC50 > 200 microM).(More)
We evaluated the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease on pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis medications by measuring concentrations of isoniazid and rifampin in blood and of pyrazinamide and ethambutol in urine. Peak concentration and exposure were reduced for rifampin, and rapid acetylators of isoniazid had lower drug levels. HIV and(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the rate of development of active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients, and to identify the characteristics of these patients. DESIGN A total of 175 HIV-positive individuals were recruited from clinics for sexually transmitted diseases and followed up for 31 +/- 6.8 months. Clinical(More)
The dose of efavirenz during concomitant rifampin (RMP) administration is a matter of debate. We studied the influence of RMP coadministration on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients in South India. Fifty-seven HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected and 15 HIV-1-infected patients receiving(More)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a core risk group for HIV. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased sexual risk-taking behaviours in many cultures, in particular among MSM. However, no studies to date have explored alcohol use and HIV risk among MSM in India. MSM in Chennai, India (n = 210) completed an interviewer-administered(More)