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BACKGROUND Multi drug resistance (MDR) or cross-resistance to multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful application of chemotherapy and a basic problem in cancer biology. The multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, and its gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are an important determinant of MDR. Therefore, there is an urgent need(More)
Glutathione (GSH), an important component of the phase II detoxification system, plays a major role in storage, metabolism and transport of metals across the cell membrane. The role of copper, its metabolism and storage in living systems is not completely understood. Copper plays an important role in a number of physiological processes, e.g. several growth(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the over expression of drug efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major impediments to successful treatment of cancer. P-gp acts as an energy-dependent drug efflux pump and reduces the intracellular concentration of structurally unrelated drugs inside the cells. Therefore, there is an urgent need for(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer represents a variety of strategies employed by tumor cells to evade the beneficial cytotoxic effects of structurally different anticancer drugs and thus confers impediments to the successful treatment of cancers. Efflux of drugs by MDR protein-1, functional P-glycoprotein and elevated level of reduced glutathione confer(More)
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) reduces intracellular anticancer drug accumulation either by co transporting them with glutathione (GSH) or extruding drug-GSH conjugates outside of the cell. Thus, MRP1 confers multidrug resistance (MDR) and worsen successful chemotherapeutic treatment against cancer. Although the exact mechanism of MRP1(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of present investigation to isolate β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga. METHODS The methanolic extract of the rhizomes of plant Alpinia galanga was subjected to column chromatography and was eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol (99:1) to yield compound (AG5) β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate. Various(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer, a major obstacle to successful application of cancer chemotherapy, is often characterized by over-expression of multidrug resistance-related proteins such as MRP1, P-gp or elevated glutathione (GSH) level. Efflux of drugs by functional P-gp, MRP1 and elevated GSH level can confer resistance to apoptosis induced by a(More)