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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
The human protein ABC7 belongs to the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter superfamily, and its yeast orthologue, Atm1p, plays a central role in the maturation of cytosolic iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cluster-containing proteins. Previously, a missense mutation in the human ABC7 gene was shown to be the defect in members of a family affected with(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) has emerged as a key tumor suppressor pathway. During this process, the cytosolic constituents are sequestered into autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes to become autolysosomes where their contents are finally degraded. Although a reduced autophagy has been shown in human tumors or in(More)
BACKGROUND Recessive LPIN1 mutations were identified as a cause of severe rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients. The human lipin family includes two other closely related members, lipin-2 and 3, which share strong homology and similar activity. The study aimed to determine the involvement of the LPIN family genes in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients(More)
Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency in α-galactosidase A. The disease is characterized by severe major organ involvement, but the pathologic mechanisms responsible have not been elucidated. Disruptions of autophagic processes have been reported for other LSDs, but have not yet been investigated in Fabry disease. Renal(More)
Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference normal values are given within the age range. Despite the(More)
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS Hepcidin is an acute-phase response peptide. We have investigated the possible involvement of hepcidin in massive obesity, a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Three groups of severely obese patients with or without diabetes or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis were investigated. METHODS Hepcidin expression was studied in liver and(More)
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS The mechanism by which hepcidin regulates iron export from macrophages has been well established and is believed to involve degradation of ferroportin. However, in the small intestine, hepcidin's mechanisms of action are not known. We studied human polarized intestinal (Caco-2/TC7) cells and mouse duodenal segments, ex vivo, to(More)
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphocyte lysates has hitherto been unavailable. We developed an(More)