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OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening microvascular complication of diabetes with a complex multifactorial pathogenesis. A systematic meta-analysis was undertaken to collectively assess genetic studies and determine which previously investigated polymorphisms are associated with diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS All studies(More)
OBJECTIVE Aldose reductase (ALR) is involved in diabetic microvascular damage via the polyol pathway. A recent meta-analysis found genetic variation in the ALR gene (AKR1B1) to be significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). We investigated the genetic association of AKR1B1 with DR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study enrolled 909(More)
PURPOSE Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are the dimethylated isomeric derivatives of the amino acid L-arginine. ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), while SDMA is a competitive inhibitor of cellular uptake of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS. As such, these metabolites are associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), present in human serum, is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and contributes to vascular disease. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is an ADMA degrading enzyme that has two isoforms: DDAHI and DDAHII. We sought to determine whether serum ADMA levels in type 2 diabetes are influenced(More)
PURPOSE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a role in angiogenesis and microvascular permeability. This study was conducted to determine whether common sequence variation in the VEGFA gene plays a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHOD Five hundred fifty-four subjects with diabetes(More)
OBJECTIVE Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and l-arginine directly influence nitric oxide production. Our objective was to test whether serum ADMA, SDMA, or l-arginine levels correlate with diabetic retinopathy subtype or severity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 162 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 343 with(More)
PURPOSE Carbonic anhydrase is elevated in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This study aimed to determine if common polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) gene influence susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS In this multicentered study, a total of 235 control subjects with no DR, 158 subjects with(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe a course for trainee psychiatrists, designed to encourage critical thinking within an interdisciplinary framework. Trainees' responses to the course, and the implications of these for teaching, learning and clinical practice, are considered. METHOD Trainees were interviewed, and their responses subjected to content analysis. (More)
OBJECTIVE Although the two political systems cannot be equated, the psychiatric and psychosocial issues raised by people detained under the migration regulations of the present Australian government, and those detained under the security legislation of the last apartheid government in South Africa, are similar in many aspects. METHOD We present two case(More)
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