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The effect of anti-vascular agents on the growth of experimental tumors is well studied. Their impact on tumor vasculature, the primary therapeutic target of these agents, is not as well characterized, even though this primarily determines treatment outcome. Hypothesizing that the response of vessels to therapy is influenced by their stage of maturation, we(More)
Diffuse optical methods were used to monitor two different therapies in K1735 malignant mouse melanoma tumor models: anti-vascular therapy and radiation therapy. Anti-vascular therapy induced acute variation in hemodynamic parameters within an hour, and radiation therapy induced longitudinal changes within 2 weeks. During anti-vascular therapy, the drug(More)
Activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway in endothelial cells is required for angiogenesis. Raf is the kinase most efficiently inhibited by the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, which has shown activity against certain human cancers in clinical trials. To understand the mechanisms underlying this activity, we studied how it controlled growth(More)
This study compared oxygen pressures (Po(2)), measured by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence, in the intravascular (blood plasma) space in the muscle with those in the interstitial (pericellular) space. Our hypothesis was that the capillary wall would not significantly impede oxygen diffusion from the blood plasma to the pericellular space. A new(More)
The vascular effects of ionizing radiation were examined in K1735 murine melanoma tumors. Single-fraction and fractionated radiation virtually arrested growth of these tumors for about a week, after which they resumed more rapid growth. Tumor microvessel density (MVD) and blood perfusion was unchanged seven days after radiation but decreased at later time(More)
A new Oxyphor (Oxyphor G3) has been used to selectively determine the oxygen pressure in interstitial (pericellular) spaces. Oxyphor G3 is a Pd-tetrabenzoporphyrin, encapsulated inside generation 2 poly-arylglycine (AG) dendrimer, and therefore is a true near infrared oxygen sensor, having a strong absorption band at 636nm and emission near 800nm. The(More)
Selective cytokine inhibitory drugs (SelCIDs) are a novel class of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors discovered during a thalidomide analog discovery program. These analogs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit tumor angiogenesis, vascularity, and growth. Two analogs (CC-7034 and CC-9088) were identified that had enhanced antiangiogenic activity in(More)
The Prolactin Receptor (PRLR) is a type 1 cytokine receptor that is expressed in a subset of breast cancers and may contribute to its pathogenesis. It is relatively overexpressed in approximately 25% of human breast tumors while expressed at low levels in some normal human tissues including the mammary gland. We developed an anti-PRLR antibody-drug(More)
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